Source: ProtoBuf.js

/*
 Copyright 2013 Daniel Wirtz <dcode@dcode.io>

 Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
 you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
 You may obtain a copy of the License at

 http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0

 Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
 distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
 WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
 See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
 limitations under the License.
 */

/**
 * @license ProtoBuf.js (c) 2013 Daniel Wirtz <dcode@dcode.io>
 * Released under the Apache License, Version 2.0
 * see: https://github.com/dcodeIO/ProtoBuf.js for details
 */
(function(global, factory) {

    /* AMD */ if (typeof define === 'function' && define["amd"])
        define(["ByteBuffer"], factory);
    /* CommonJS */ else if (typeof require === "function" && typeof module === "object" && module && module["exports"])
        module["exports"] = factory(require("bytebuffer"));
    /* Global */ else
        (global["dcodeIO"] = global["dcodeIO"] || {})["ProtoBuf"] = factory(global["dcodeIO"]["ByteBuffer"]);

})(this, function(ByteBuffer) {
    "use strict";

    /**
     * The ProtoBuf namespace.
     * @exports ProtoBuf
     * @namespace
     * @expose
     */
    var ProtoBuf = {};

    /**
     * @type {!function(new: ByteBuffer, ...[*])}
     * @expose
     */
    ProtoBuf.ByteBuffer = ByteBuffer;

    /**
     * @type {?function(new: Long, ...[*])}
     * @expose
     */
    ProtoBuf.Long = ByteBuffer.Long || null;

    /**
     * ProtoBuf.js version.
     * @type {string}
     * @const
     * @expose
     */
    ProtoBuf.VERSION = "4.0.0";

    /**
     * Wire types.
     * @type {Object.<string,number>}
     * @const
     * @expose
     */
    ProtoBuf.WIRE_TYPES = {};

    /**
     * Varint wire type.
     * @type {number}
     * @expose
     */
    ProtoBuf.WIRE_TYPES.VARINT = 0;

    /**
     * Fixed 64 bits wire type.
     * @type {number}
     * @const
     * @expose
     */
    ProtoBuf.WIRE_TYPES.BITS64 = 1;

    /**
     * Length delimited wire type.
     * @type {number}
     * @const
     * @expose
     */
    ProtoBuf.WIRE_TYPES.LDELIM = 2;

    /**
     * Start group wire type.
     * @type {number}
     * @const
     * @expose
     */
    ProtoBuf.WIRE_TYPES.STARTGROUP = 3;

    /**
     * End group wire type.
     * @type {number}
     * @const
     * @expose
     */
    ProtoBuf.WIRE_TYPES.ENDGROUP = 4;

    /**
     * Fixed 32 bits wire type.
     * @type {number}
     * @const
     * @expose
     */
    ProtoBuf.WIRE_TYPES.BITS32 = 5;

    /**
     * Packable wire types.
     * @type {!Array.<number>}
     * @const
     * @expose
     */
    ProtoBuf.PACKABLE_WIRE_TYPES = [
        ProtoBuf.WIRE_TYPES.VARINT,
        ProtoBuf.WIRE_TYPES.BITS64,
        ProtoBuf.WIRE_TYPES.BITS32
    ];

    /**
     * Types.
     * @dict
     * @type {!Object.<string,{name: string, wireType: number, defaultValue: *}>}
     * @const
     * @expose
     */
    ProtoBuf.TYPES = {
        // According to the protobuf spec.
        "int32": {
            name: "int32",
            wireType: ProtoBuf.WIRE_TYPES.VARINT,
            defaultValue: 0
        },
        "uint32": {
            name: "uint32",
            wireType: ProtoBuf.WIRE_TYPES.VARINT,
            defaultValue: 0
        },
        "sint32": {
            name: "sint32",
            wireType: ProtoBuf.WIRE_TYPES.VARINT,
            defaultValue: 0
        },
        "int64": {
            name: "int64",
            wireType: ProtoBuf.WIRE_TYPES.VARINT,
            defaultValue: ProtoBuf.Long ? ProtoBuf.Long.ZERO : undefined
        },
        "uint64": {
            name: "uint64",
            wireType: ProtoBuf.WIRE_TYPES.VARINT,
            defaultValue: ProtoBuf.Long ? ProtoBuf.Long.UZERO : undefined
        },
        "sint64": {
            name: "sint64",
            wireType: ProtoBuf.WIRE_TYPES.VARINT,
            defaultValue: ProtoBuf.Long ? ProtoBuf.Long.ZERO : undefined
        },
        "bool": {
            name: "bool",
            wireType: ProtoBuf.WIRE_TYPES.VARINT,
            defaultValue: false
        },
        "double": {
            name: "double",
            wireType: ProtoBuf.WIRE_TYPES.BITS64,
            defaultValue: 0
        },
        "string": {
            name: "string",
            wireType: ProtoBuf.WIRE_TYPES.LDELIM,
            defaultValue: ""
        },
        "bytes": {
            name: "bytes",
            wireType: ProtoBuf.WIRE_TYPES.LDELIM,
            defaultValue: null // overridden in the code, must be a unique instance
        },
        "fixed32": {
            name: "fixed32",
            wireType: ProtoBuf.WIRE_TYPES.BITS32,
            defaultValue: 0
        },
        "sfixed32": {
            name: "sfixed32",
            wireType: ProtoBuf.WIRE_TYPES.BITS32,
            defaultValue: 0
        },
        "fixed64": {
            name: "fixed64",
            wireType: ProtoBuf.WIRE_TYPES.BITS64,
            defaultValue:  ProtoBuf.Long ? ProtoBuf.Long.UZERO : undefined
        },
        "sfixed64": {
            name: "sfixed64",
            wireType: ProtoBuf.WIRE_TYPES.BITS64,
            defaultValue: ProtoBuf.Long ? ProtoBuf.Long.ZERO : undefined
        },
        "float": {
            name: "float",
            wireType: ProtoBuf.WIRE_TYPES.BITS32,
            defaultValue: 0
        },
        "enum": {
            name: "enum",
            wireType: ProtoBuf.WIRE_TYPES.VARINT,
            defaultValue: 0
        },
        "message": {
            name: "message",
            wireType: ProtoBuf.WIRE_TYPES.LDELIM,
            defaultValue: null
        },
        "group": {
            name: "group",
            wireType: ProtoBuf.WIRE_TYPES.STARTGROUP,
            defaultValue: null
        }
    };

    /**
     * Valid map key types.
     * @type {!Array.<!Object.<string,{name: string, wireType: number, defaultValue: *}>>}
     * @const
     * @expose
     */
    ProtoBuf.MAP_KEY_TYPES = [
        ProtoBuf.TYPES["int32"],
        ProtoBuf.TYPES["sint32"],
        ProtoBuf.TYPES["sfixed32"],
        ProtoBuf.TYPES["uint32"],
        ProtoBuf.TYPES["fixed32"],
        ProtoBuf.TYPES["int64"],
        ProtoBuf.TYPES["sint64"],
        ProtoBuf.TYPES["sfixed64"],
        ProtoBuf.TYPES["uint64"],
        ProtoBuf.TYPES["fixed64"],
        ProtoBuf.TYPES["bool"],
        ProtoBuf.TYPES["string"],
        ProtoBuf.TYPES["bytes"]
    ];

    /**
     * Minimum field id.
     * @type {number}
     * @const
     * @expose
     */
    ProtoBuf.ID_MIN = 1;

    /**
     * Maximum field id.
     * @type {number}
     * @const
     * @expose
     */
    ProtoBuf.ID_MAX = 0x1FFFFFFF;

    /**
     * If set to `true`, field names will be converted from underscore notation to camel case. Defaults to `false`.
     *  Must be set prior to parsing.
     * @type {boolean}
     * @expose
     */
    ProtoBuf.convertFieldsToCamelCase = false;

    /**
     * By default, messages are populated with (setX, set_x) accessors for each field. This can be disabled by
     *  setting this to `false` prior to building messages.
     * @type {boolean}
     * @expose
     */
    ProtoBuf.populateAccessors = true;

    /**
     * By default, messages are populated with default values if a field is not present on the wire. To disable
     *  this behavior, set this setting to `false`.
     * @type {boolean}
     * @expose
     */
    ProtoBuf.populateDefaults = true;

    /**
     * @alias ProtoBuf.Util
     * @expose
     */
    ProtoBuf.Util = (function() {
        "use strict";

        /**
         * ProtoBuf utilities.
         * @exports ProtoBuf.Util
         * @namespace
         */
        var Util = {};

        /**
         * Flag if running in node or not.
         * @type {boolean}
         * @const
         * @expose
         */
        Util.IS_NODE = !!(
            // Feature detection causes packaging for the browser to fail or include
            // redundant modules.
            // * Works for browserify because node-process does not implement toString
            //   https://github.com/defunctzombie/node-process
            typeof process === 'object' &&
            process+'' === '[object process]'
        );

        /**
         * Constructs a XMLHttpRequest object.
         * @return {XMLHttpRequest}
         * @throws {Error} If XMLHttpRequest is not supported
         * @expose
         */
        Util.XHR = function() {
            // No dependencies please, ref: http://www.quirksmode.org/js/xmlhttp.html
            var XMLHttpFactories = [
                function () {return new XMLHttpRequest()},
                function () {return new ActiveXObject("Msxml2.XMLHTTP")},
                function () {return new ActiveXObject("Msxml3.XMLHTTP")},
                function () {return new ActiveXObject("Microsoft.XMLHTTP")}
            ];
            /** @type {?XMLHttpRequest} */
            var xhr = null;
            for (var i=0;i<XMLHttpFactories.length;i++) {
                try { xhr = XMLHttpFactories[i](); }
                catch (e) { continue; }
                break;
            }
            if (!xhr)
                throw Error("XMLHttpRequest is not supported");
            return xhr;
        };

        /**
         * Fetches a resource.
         * @param {string} path Resource path
         * @param {function(?string)=} callback Callback receiving the resource's contents. If omitted the resource will
         *   be fetched synchronously. If the request failed, contents will be null.
         * @return {?string|undefined} Resource contents if callback is omitted (null if the request failed), else undefined.
         * @expose
         */
        Util.fetch = function(path, callback) {
            if (callback && typeof callback != 'function')
                callback = null;
            if (Util.IS_NODE) {
                if (callback) {
                    require("fs").readFile(path, function(err, data) {
                        if (err)
                            callback(null);
                        else
                            callback(""+data);
                    });
                } else
                    try {
                        return require("fs").readFileSync(path);
                    } catch (e) {
                        return null;
                    }
            } else {
                var xhr = Util.XHR();
                xhr.open('GET', path, callback ? true : false);
                // xhr.setRequestHeader('User-Agent', 'XMLHTTP/1.0');
                xhr.setRequestHeader('Accept', 'text/plain');
                if (typeof xhr.overrideMimeType === 'function') xhr.overrideMimeType('text/plain');
                if (callback) {
                    xhr.onreadystatechange = function() {
                        if (xhr.readyState != 4) return;
                        if (/* remote */ xhr.status == 200 || /* local */ (xhr.status == 0 && typeof xhr.responseText === 'string'))
                            callback(xhr.responseText);
                        else
                            callback(null);
                    };
                    if (xhr.readyState == 4)
                        return;
                    xhr.send(null);
                } else {
                    xhr.send(null);
                    if (/* remote */ xhr.status == 200 || /* local */ (xhr.status == 0 && typeof xhr.responseText === 'string'))
                        return xhr.responseText;
                    return null;
                }
            }
        };

        /**
         * Converts a string to camel case.
         * @param {string} str
         * @returns {string}
         * @expose
         */
        Util.toCamelCase = function(str) {
            return str.replace(/_([a-zA-Z])/g, function ($0, $1) {
                return $1.toUpperCase();
            });
        };

        return Util;
    })();

    /**
     * Language expressions.
     * @type {!Object.<string,string|!RegExp>}
     * @expose
     */
    ProtoBuf.Lang = {
        OPEN: "{",
        CLOSE: "}",
        OPTOPEN: "[",
        OPTCLOSE: "]",
        OPTEND: ",",
        EQUAL: "=",
        END: ";",
        COMMA: ",",
        STRINGOPEN: '"',
        STRINGCLOSE: '"',
        STRINGOPEN_SQ: "'",
        STRINGCLOSE_SQ: "'",
        COPTOPEN: '(',
        COPTCLOSE: ')',
        LT: '<',
        GT: '>',
        DELIM: /[\s\{\}=;\[\],'"\(\)<>]/g,
        // KEYWORD: /^(?:package|option|import|message|enum|extend|service|syntax|extensions|group)$/,
        RULE: /^(?:required|optional|repeated|map)$/,
        TYPE: /^(?:double|float|int32|uint32|sint32|int64|uint64|sint64|fixed32|sfixed32|fixed64|sfixed64|bool|string|bytes)$/,
        NAME: /^[a-zA-Z_][a-zA-Z_0-9]*$/,
        TYPEDEF: /^[a-zA-Z][a-zA-Z_0-9]*$/,
        TYPEREF: /^(?:\.?[a-zA-Z_][a-zA-Z_0-9]*)+$/,
        FQTYPEREF: /^(?:\.[a-zA-Z][a-zA-Z_0-9]*)+$/,
        NUMBER: /^-?(?:[1-9][0-9]*|0|0[xX][0-9a-fA-F]+|0[0-7]+|([0-9]*(\.[0-9]*)?([Ee][+-]?[0-9]+)?)|inf|nan)$/,
        NUMBER_DEC: /^(?:[1-9][0-9]*|0)$/,
        NUMBER_HEX: /^0[xX][0-9a-fA-F]+$/,
        NUMBER_OCT: /^0[0-7]+$/,
        NUMBER_FLT: /^([0-9]*(\.[0-9]*)?([Ee][+-]?[0-9]+)?|inf|nan)$/,
        ID: /^(?:[1-9][0-9]*|0|0[xX][0-9a-fA-F]+|0[0-7]+)$/,
        NEGID: /^\-?(?:[1-9][0-9]*|0|0[xX][0-9a-fA-F]+|0[0-7]+)$/,
        WHITESPACE: /\s/,
        STRING: /(?:"([^"\\]*(?:\\.[^"\\]*)*)")|(?:'([^'\\]*(?:\\.[^'\\]*)*)')/g,
        BOOL: /^(?:true|false)$/i
    };

    /**
     * @alias ProtoBuf.DotProto
     * @expose
     */
    ProtoBuf.DotProto = (function(ProtoBuf, Lang) {
        "use strict";

        /**
         * Utilities to parse .proto files.
         * @exports ProtoBuf.DotProto
         * @namespace
         */
        var DotProto = {};

        /**
         * Constructs a new Tokenizer.
         * @exports ProtoBuf.DotProto.Tokenizer
         * @class prototype tokenizer
         * @param {string} proto Proto to tokenize
         * @constructor
         */
        var Tokenizer = function(proto) {

            /**
             * Source to parse.
             * @type {string}
             * @expose
             */
            this.source = ""+proto; // In case it's a buffer

            /**
             * Current index.
             * @type {number}
             * @expose
             */
            this.index = 0;

            /**
             * Current line.
             * @type {number}
             * @expose
             */
            this.line = 1;

            /**
             * Stacked values.
             * @type {!Array.<string>}
             * @expose
             */
            this.stack = [];

            /**
             * Whether currently reading a string or not.
             * @type {boolean}
             * @expose
             */
            this.readingString = false;

            /**
             * Whatever character ends the string. Either a single or double quote character.
             * @type {string}
             * @expose
             */
            this.stringEndsWith = Lang.STRINGCLOSE;
        };

        /**
         * @alias ProtoBuf.DotProto.Tokenizer.prototype
         * @inner
         */
        var TokenizerPrototype = Tokenizer.prototype;

        /**
         * Reads a string beginning at the current index.
         * @return {string} The string
         * @throws {Error} If it's not a valid string
         * @private
         */
        TokenizerPrototype._readString = function() {
            Lang.STRING.lastIndex = this.index-1; // Include the open quote
            var match;
            if ((match = Lang.STRING.exec(this.source)) !== null) {
                var s = typeof match[1] !== 'undefined' ? match[1] : match[2];
                this.index = Lang.STRING.lastIndex;
                this.stack.push(this.stringEndsWith);
                return s;
            }
            throw Error("Unterminated string at line "+this.line+", index "+this.index);
        };

        /**
         * Gets the next token and advances by one.
         * @return {?string} Token or `null` on EOF
         * @throws {Error} If it's not a valid proto file
         * @expose
         */
        TokenizerPrototype.next = function() {
            if (this.stack.length > 0)
                return this.stack.shift();
            if (this.index >= this.source.length)
                return null; // No more tokens
            if (this.readingString) {
                this.readingString = false;
                return this._readString();
            }
            var repeat, last;
            do {
                repeat = false;
                // Strip white spaces
                while (Lang.WHITESPACE.test(last = this.source.charAt(this.index))) {
                    this.index++;
                    if (last === "\n")
                        this.line++;
                    if (this.index === this.source.length)
                        return null;
                }
                // Strip comments
                if (this.source.charAt(this.index) === '/') {
                    if (this.source.charAt(++this.index) === '/') { // Single line
                        while (this.source.charAt(this.index) !== "\n") {
                            this.index++;
                            if (this.index == this.source.length)
                                return null;
                        }
                        this.index++;
                        this.line++;
                        repeat = true;
                    } else if (this.source.charAt(this.index) === '*') { /* Block */
                        last = '';
                        while (last+(last=this.source.charAt(this.index)) !== '*/') {
                            this.index++;
                            if (last === "\n")
                                this.line++;
                            if (this.index === this.source.length)
                                return null;
                        }
                        this.index++;
                        repeat = true;
                    } else
                        throw Error("Unterminated comment at line "+this.line+": /"+this.source.charAt(this.index));
                }
            } while (repeat);
            if (this.index === this.source.length) return null;

            // Read the next token
            var end = this.index;
            Lang.DELIM.lastIndex = 0;
            var delim = Lang.DELIM.test(this.source.charAt(end));
            if (!delim) {
                ++end;
                while(end < this.source.length && !Lang.DELIM.test(this.source.charAt(end)))
                    end++;
            } else
                ++end;
            var token = this.source.substring(this.index, this.index = end);
            if (token === Lang.STRINGOPEN)
                this.readingString = true,
                this.stringEndsWith = Lang.STRINGCLOSE;
            else if (token === Lang.STRINGOPEN_SQ)
                this.readingString = true,
                this.stringEndsWith = Lang.STRINGCLOSE_SQ;
            return token;
        };

        /**
         * Peeks for the next token.
         * @return {?string} Token or `null` on EOF
         * @throws {Error} If it's not a valid proto file
         * @expose
         */
        TokenizerPrototype.peek = function() {
            if (this.stack.length === 0) {
                var token = this.next();
                if (token === null)
                    return null;
                this.stack.push(token);
            }
            return this.stack[0];
        };

        /**
         * Returns a string representation of this object.
         * @return {string} String representation as of "Tokenizer(index/length)"
         * @expose
         */
        TokenizerPrototype.toString = function() {
            return "Tokenizer("+this.index+"/"+this.source.length+" at line "+this.line+")";
        };

        /**
         * @alias ProtoBuf.DotProto.Tokenizer
         * @expose
         */
        DotProto.Tokenizer = Tokenizer;

        /**
         * Constructs a new Parser.
         * @exports ProtoBuf.DotProto.Parser
         * @class prototype parser
         * @param {string} proto Protocol source
         * @constructor
         */
        var Parser = function(proto) {

            /**
             * Tokenizer.
             * @type {ProtoBuf.DotProto.Tokenizer}
             * @expose
             */
            this.tn = new Tokenizer(proto);
        };

        /**
         * @alias ProtoBuf.DotProto.Parser.prototype
         * @inner
         */
        var ParserPrototype = Parser.prototype;

        /**
         * Runs the parser.
         * @return {{package: string|null, messages: Array.<object>, enums: Array.<object>, imports: Array.<string>, options: object<string,*>}}
         * @throws {Error} If the source cannot be parsed
         * @expose
         */
        ParserPrototype.parse = function() {
            var topLevel = {
                "name": "[ROOT]", // temporary
                "package": null,
                "messages": [],
                "enums": [],
                "imports": [],
                "options": {},
                "services": []
            };
            var token, head = true;
            while(token = this.tn.next()) {
                switch (token) {
                    case 'package':
                        if (!head || topLevel["package"] !== null)
                            throw Error("Unexpected package at line "+this.tn.line);
                        topLevel["package"] = this._parsePackage(token);
                        break;
                    case 'import':
                        if (!head)
                            throw Error("Unexpected import at line "+this.tn.line);
                        topLevel.imports.push(this._parseImport(token));
                        break;
                    case 'message':
                        this._parseMessage(topLevel, null, token);
                        head = false;
                        break;
                    case 'enum':
                        this._parseEnum(topLevel, token);
                        head = false;
                        break;
                    case 'option':
                        this._parseOption(topLevel, token);
                        break;
                    case 'service':
                        this._parseService(topLevel, token);
                        break;
                    case 'extend':
                        this._parseExtend(topLevel, token);
                        break;
                    case 'syntax':
                        topLevel["syntax"] = this._parseSyntax(topLevel);
                        break;
                    default:
                        throw Error("Unexpected token at line "+this.tn.line+": "+token);
                }
            }
            delete topLevel["name"];
            return topLevel;
        };

        /**
         * Parses a number value.
         * @param {string} val Number value to parse
         * @return {number} Number
         * @throws {Error} If the number value is invalid
         * @private
         */
        ParserPrototype._parseNumber = function(val) {
            var sign = 1;
            if (val.charAt(0) == '-')
                sign = -1,
                val = val.substring(1);
            if (Lang.NUMBER_DEC.test(val))
                return sign*parseInt(val, 10);
            else if (Lang.NUMBER_HEX.test(val))
                return sign*parseInt(val.substring(2), 16);
            else if (Lang.NUMBER_OCT.test(val))
                return sign*parseInt(val.substring(1), 8);
            else if (Lang.NUMBER_FLT.test(val)) {
                if(val === 'inf')
                    return sign*Infinity;
                else if (val === 'nan')
                    return NaN;
                else
                    return sign*parseFloat(val);
            }

            throw Error("Illegal number at line "+this.tn.line+": "+(sign < 0 ? '-' : '')+val);
        };

        /**
         * Parses a (possibly multiline) string.
         * @returns {string}
         * @private
         */
        ParserPrototype._parseString = function() {
            var value = "", token, delim;
            do {
                delim = this.tn.next();
                value += this.tn.next();
                token = this.tn.next();
                if (token !== delim)
                    throw Error("Illegal end of string at line "+this.tn.line+": "+token);
                token = this.tn.peek();
            } while (token === Lang.STRINGOPEN || token === Lang.STRINGOPEN_SQ);
            return value;
        };

        /**
         * Parses an ID value.
         * @param {string} val ID value to parse
         * @param {boolean=} neg Whether the ID may be negative, defaults to `false`
         * @returns {number} ID
         * @throws {Error} If the ID value is invalid
         * @private
         */
        ParserPrototype._parseId = function(val, neg) {
            var id = -1;
            var sign = 1;
            if (val.charAt(0) == '-')
                sign = -1,
                val = val.substring(1);
            if (Lang.NUMBER_DEC.test(val))
                id = parseInt(val);
            else if (Lang.NUMBER_HEX.test(val))
                id = parseInt(val.substring(2), 16);
            else if (Lang.NUMBER_OCT.test(val))
                id = parseInt(val.substring(1), 8);
            else
                throw Error("Illegal id at line "+this.tn.line+": "+(sign < 0 ? '-' : '')+val);
            id = (sign*id)|0; // Force to 32bit
            if (!neg && id < 0)
                throw Error("Illegal id at line "+this.tn.line+": "+(sign < 0 ? '-' : '')+val);
            return id;
        };

        /**
         * Parses the package definition.
         * @param {string} token Initial token
         * @return {string} Package name
         * @throws {Error} If the package definition cannot be parsed
         * @private
         */
        ParserPrototype._parsePackage = function(token) {
            token = this.tn.next();
            if (!Lang.TYPEREF.test(token))
                throw Error("Illegal package name at line "+this.tn.line+": "+token);
            var pkg = token;
            token = this.tn.next();
            if (token != Lang.END)
                throw Error("Illegal end of package at line "+this.tn.line+": "+token);
            return pkg;
        };

        /**
         * Parses an import definition.
         * @param {string} token Initial token
         * @return {string} Import file name
         * @throws {Error} If the import definition cannot be parsed
         * @private
         */
        ParserPrototype._parseImport = function(token) {
            token = this.tn.peek();
            if (token === "public")
                this.tn.next(),
                token = this.tn.peek();
            if (token !== Lang.STRINGOPEN && token !== Lang.STRINGOPEN_SQ)
                throw Error("Illegal start of import at line "+this.tn.line+": "+token);
            var imported = this._parseString();
            token = this.tn.next();
            if (token !== Lang.END)
                throw Error("Illegal end of import at line "+this.tn.line+": "+token);
            return imported;
        };

        /**
         * Parses a namespace option.
         * @param {Object} parent Parent definition
         * @param {string} token Initial token
         * @throws {Error} If the option cannot be parsed
         * @private
         */
        ParserPrototype._parseOption = function(parent, token) {
            token = this.tn.next();
            var custom = false;
            if (token == Lang.COPTOPEN)
                custom = true,
                token = this.tn.next();
            if (!Lang.TYPEREF.test(token))
                // we can allow options of the form google.protobuf.* since they will just get ignored anyways
                if (!/google\.protobuf\./.test(token))
                    throw Error("Illegal option name in message "+parent.name+" at line "+this.tn.line+": "+token);
            var name = token;
            token = this.tn.next();
            if (custom) { // (my_method_option).foo, (my_method_option), some_method_option, (foo.my_option).bar
                if (token !== Lang.COPTCLOSE)
                    throw Error("Illegal end in message "+parent.name+", option "+name+" at line "+this.tn.line+": "+token);
                name = '('+name+')';
                token = this.tn.next();
                if (Lang.FQTYPEREF.test(token))
                    name += token,
                    token = this.tn.next();
            }
            if (token !== Lang.EQUAL)
                throw Error("Illegal operator in message "+parent.name+", option "+name+" at line "+this.tn.line+": "+token);
            var value;
            token = this.tn.peek();
            if (token === Lang.STRINGOPEN || token === Lang.STRINGOPEN_SQ)
                value = this._parseString();
            else {
                this.tn.next();
                if (Lang.NUMBER.test(token))
                    value = this._parseNumber(token, true);
                else if (Lang.BOOL.test(token))
                    value = token === 'true';
                else if (Lang.TYPEREF.test(token))
                    value = token;
                else
                    throw Error("Illegal option value in message "+parent.name+", option "+name+" at line "+this.tn.line+": "+token);
            }
            token = this.tn.next();
            if (token !== Lang.END)
                throw Error("Illegal end of option in message "+parent.name+", option "+name+" at line "+this.tn.line+": "+token);
            parent["options"][name] = value;
        };

        /**
         * Parses an ignored statement of the form ['keyword', ..., ';'].
         * @param {Object} parent Parent definition
         * @param {string} keyword Initial token
         * @throws {Error} If the directive cannot be parsed
         * @private
         */
        ParserPrototype._parseIgnoredStatement = function(parent, keyword) {
            var token;
            do {
                token = this.tn.next();
                if (token === null)
                    throw Error("Unexpected EOF in "+parent.name+", "+keyword+" at line "+this.tn.line);
                if (token === Lang.END)
                    break;
            } while (true);
        };

        /**
         * Parses a service definition.
         * @param {Object} parent Parent definition
         * @param {string} token Initial token
         * @throws {Error} If the service cannot be parsed
         * @private
         */
        ParserPrototype._parseService = function(parent, token) {
            token = this.tn.next();
            if (!Lang.NAME.test(token))
                throw Error("Illegal service name at line "+this.tn.line+": "+token);
            var name = token;
            var svc = {
                "name": name,
                "rpc": {},
                "options": {}
            };
            token = this.tn.next();
            if (token !== Lang.OPEN)
                throw Error("Illegal start of service "+name+" at line "+this.tn.line+": "+token);
            do {
                token = this.tn.next();
                if (token === "option")
                    this._parseOption(svc, token);
                else if (token === 'rpc')
                    this._parseServiceRPC(svc, token);
                else if (token !== Lang.CLOSE)
                    throw Error("Illegal type of service "+name+" at line "+this.tn.line+": "+token);
            } while (token !== Lang.CLOSE);
            parent["services"].push(svc);
        };

        /**
         * Parses a RPC service definition of the form ['rpc', name, (request), 'returns', (response)].
         * @param {Object} svc Parent definition
         * @param {string} token Initial token
         * @private
         */
        ParserPrototype._parseServiceRPC = function(svc, token) {
            var type = token;
            token = this.tn.next();
            if (!Lang.NAME.test(token))
                throw Error("Illegal method name in service "+svc["name"]+" at line "+this.tn.line+": "+token);
            var name = token;
            var method = {
                "request": null,
                "response": null,
                "request_stream": false,
                "response_stream": false,
                "options": {}
            };
            token = this.tn.next();
            if (token !== Lang.COPTOPEN)
                throw Error("Illegal start of request type in service "+svc["name"]+"#"+name+" at line "+this.tn.line+": "+token);
            token = this.tn.next();
            if (token.toLowerCase() === "stream") {
              method["request_stream"] = true;
              token = this.tn.next();
            }
            if (!Lang.TYPEREF.test(token))
                throw Error("Illegal request type in service "+svc["name"]+"#"+name+" at line "+this.tn.line+": "+token);
            method["request"] = token;
            token = this.tn.next();
            if (token != Lang.COPTCLOSE)
                throw Error("Illegal end of request type in service "+svc["name"]+"#"+name+" at line "+this.tn.line+": "+token);
            token = this.tn.next();
            if (token.toLowerCase() !== "returns")
                throw Error("Illegal delimiter in service "+svc["name"]+"#"+name+" at line "+this.tn.line+": "+token);
            token = this.tn.next();
            if (token != Lang.COPTOPEN)
                throw Error("Illegal start of response type in service "+svc["name"]+"#"+name+" at line "+this.tn.line+": "+token);
            token = this.tn.next();
            if (token.toLowerCase() === "stream") {
              method["response_stream"] = true;
              token = this.tn.next();
            }
            method["response"] = token;
            token = this.tn.next();
            if (token !== Lang.COPTCLOSE)
                throw Error("Illegal end of response type in service "+svc["name"]+"#"+name+" at line "+this.tn.line+": "+token);
            token = this.tn.next();
            if (token === Lang.OPEN) {
                do {
                    token = this.tn.next();
                    if (token === 'option')
                        this._parseOption(method, token); // <- will fail for the custom-options example
                    else if (token !== Lang.CLOSE)
                        throw Error("Illegal start of option inservice "+svc["name"]+"#"+name+" at line "+this.tn.line+": "+token);
                } while (token !== Lang.CLOSE);
                if (this.tn.peek() === Lang.END)
                    this.tn.next();
            } else if (token !== Lang.END)
                throw Error("Illegal delimiter in service "+svc["name"]+"#"+name+" at line "+this.tn.line+": "+token);
            if (typeof svc[type] === 'undefined')
                svc[type] = {};
            svc[type][name] = method;
        };

        /**
         * Parses a message definition.
         * @param {Object} parent Parent definition
         * @param {Object} fld Field definition if this is a group, otherwise `null`
         * @param {string} token First token
         * @return {Object}
         * @throws {Error} If the message cannot be parsed
         * @private
         */
        ParserPrototype._parseMessage = function(parent, fld, token) {
            /** @dict */
            var msg = {}; // Note: At some point we might want to exclude the parser, so we need a dict.
            var isGroup = token === "group";
            token = this.tn.next();
            if (!Lang.NAME.test(token))
                throw Error("Illegal "+(isGroup ? "group" : "message")+" name"+(parent ? " in message "+parent["name"] : "")+" at line "+this.tn.line+": "+token);
            msg["name"] = token;
            if (isGroup) {
                token = this.tn.next();
                if (token !== Lang.EQUAL)
                    throw Error("Illegal id assignment after group "+msg.name+" at line "+this.tn.line+": "+token);
                token = this.tn.next();
                try {
                    fld["id"] = this._parseId(token);
                } catch (e) {
                    throw Error("Illegal field id value for group "+msg.name+"#"+fld.name+" at line "+this.tn.line+": "+token);
                }
                msg["isGroup"] = true;
            }
            msg["fields"] = []; // Note: Using arrays to support also browser that cannot preserve order of object keys.
            msg["enums"] = [];
            msg["messages"] = [];
            msg["options"] = {};
            msg["oneofs"] = {};
            token = this.tn.next();
            if (token === Lang.OPTOPEN && fld)
                this._parseFieldOptions(msg, fld, token),
                token = this.tn.next();
            if (token !== Lang.OPEN)
                throw Error("Illegal start of "+(isGroup ? "group" : "message")+" "+msg.name+" at line "+this.tn.line+": "+token);
            // msg["extensions"] = undefined
            do {
                token = this.tn.next();
                if (token === Lang.CLOSE) {
                    token = this.tn.peek();
                    if (token === Lang.END)
                        this.tn.next();
                    break;
                } else if (Lang.RULE.test(token))
                    this._parseMessageField(msg, token);
                else if (token === "oneof")
                    this._parseMessageOneOf(msg, token);
                else if (token === "enum")
                    this._parseEnum(msg, token);
                else if (token === "message")
                    this._parseMessage(msg, null, token);
                else if (token === "option")
                    this._parseOption(msg, token);
                else if (token === "extensions")
                    msg["extensions"] = this._parseExtensions(msg, token);
                else if (token === "extend")
                    this._parseExtend(msg, token);
                else if (Lang.TYPEREF.test(token))
                    this._parseMessageField(msg, "optional", token);
                else
                    throw Error("Illegal token in message "+msg.name+" at line "+this.tn.line+": "+token);
            } while (true);
            parent["messages"].push(msg);
            return msg;
        };

        /**
         * Parses a message field.
         * @param {Object} msg Message definition
         * @param {string} token Initial token
         * @param {string=} nextToken Next token, if any
         * @returns {!Object} Field descriptor
         * @throws {Error} If the message field cannot be parsed
         * @private
         */
        ParserPrototype._parseMessageField = function(msg, token, nextToken) {
            /** @dict */
            var fld = {}, grp = null;
            fld["rule"] = token;
            /** @dict */
            fld["options"] = {};
            token = typeof nextToken !== 'undefined' ? nextToken : this.tn.next();
            if (fld["rule"] === "map") {
                if (token !== Lang.LT)  // <
                    throw Error("Illegal token in message "+msg.name+" at line "+this.tn.line+": "+token);
                token = this.tn.next();
                if (!Lang.TYPE.test(token) && !Lang.TYPEREF.test(token))
                    throw Error("Illegal token in message "+msg.name+" at line "+this.tn.line+": "+token);
                fld["keytype"] = token;

                token = this.tn.next();
                if (token !== Lang.COMMA)
                    throw Error("Illegal token in message "+msg.name+" at line "+this.tn.line+": "+token);

                token = this.tn.next();
                if (!Lang.TYPE.test(token) && !Lang.TYPEREF.test(token))
                    throw Error("Illegal token in message "+msg.name+" at line "+this.tn.line+": "+token);
                fld["type"] = token;

                token = this.tn.next();
                if (token !== Lang.GT)  // >
                    throw Error("Illegal token in message "+msg.name+" at line "+this.tn.line+": "+token);

                token = this.tn.next();
                if (!Lang.NAME.test(token))
                    throw Error("Illegal token in message "+msg.name+" at line "+this.tn.line+": "+token);
                fld["name"] = token;

                token = this.tn.next();
                if (token !== Lang.EQUAL)
                    throw Error("Illegal token in field "+msg.name+"#"+fld.name+" at line "+this.line+": "+token);
                token = this.tn.next();
                try {
                    fld["id"] = this._parseId(token);
                } catch (e) {
                    throw Error("Illegal field id in message "+msg.name+"#"+fld.name+" at line "+this.tn.line+": "+token);
                }

                token = this.tn.next();
                if (token === Lang.OPTOPEN) {
                    this._parseFieldOptions(msg, fld, token);
                    token = this.tn.next();
                }
                if (token !== Lang.END)
                    throw Error("Illegal delimiter in message "+msg.name+"#"+fld.name+" at line "+this.tn.line+": "+token);
            } else if (token === "group") {
                // "A [legacy] group simply combines a nested message type and a field into a single declaration. In your
                // code, you can treat this message just as if it had a Result type field called result (the latter name is
                // converted to lower-case so that it does not conflict with the former)."
                grp = this._parseMessage(msg, fld, token);
                if (!/^[A-Z]/.test(grp["name"]))
                    throw Error('Group names must start with a capital letter');
                fld["type"] = grp["name"];
                fld["name"] = grp["name"].toLowerCase();
                token = this.tn.peek();
                if (token === Lang.END)
                    this.tn.next();
            } else {
                if (!Lang.TYPE.test(token) && !Lang.TYPEREF.test(token))
                    throw Error("Illegal field type in message "+msg.name+" at line "+this.tn.line+": "+token);
                fld["type"] = token;
                token = this.tn.next();
                if (!Lang.NAME.test(token))
                    throw Error("Illegal field name in message "+msg.name+" at line "+this.tn.line+": "+token);
                fld["name"] = token;
                token = this.tn.next();
                if (token !== Lang.EQUAL)
                    throw Error("Illegal token in field "+msg.name+"#"+fld.name+" at line "+this.tn.line+": "+token);
                token = this.tn.next();
                try {
                    fld["id"] = this._parseId(token);
                } catch (e) {
                    throw Error("Illegal field id in message "+msg.name+"#"+fld.name+" at line "+this.tn.line+": "+token);
                }
                token = this.tn.next();
                if (token === Lang.OPTOPEN)
                    this._parseFieldOptions(msg, fld, token),
                    token = this.tn.next();
                if (token !== Lang.END)
                    throw Error("Illegal delimiter in message "+msg.name+"#"+fld.name+" at line "+this.tn.line+": "+token);
            }
            msg["fields"].push(fld);
            return fld;
        };

        /**
         * Parses a message oneof.
         * @param {Object} msg Message definition
         * @param {string} token Initial token
         * @throws {Error} If the message oneof cannot be parsed
         * @private
         */
        ParserPrototype._parseMessageOneOf = function(msg, token) {
            token = this.tn.next();
            if (!Lang.NAME.test(token))
                throw Error("Illegal oneof name in message "+msg.name+" at line "+this.tn.line+": "+token);
            var name = token,
                fld;
            var fields = [];
            token = this.tn.next();
            if (token !== Lang.OPEN)
                throw Error("Illegal start of oneof "+name+" at line "+this.tn.line+": "+token);
            while (this.tn.peek() !== Lang.CLOSE) {
                fld = this._parseMessageField(msg, "optional");
                fld["oneof"] = name;
                fields.push(fld["id"]);
            }
            this.tn.next();
            msg["oneofs"][name] = fields;
        };

        /**
         * Parses a set of field option definitions.
         * @param {Object} msg Message definition
         * @param {Object} fld Field definition
         * @param {string} token Initial token
         * @throws {Error} If the message field options cannot be parsed
         * @private
         */
        ParserPrototype._parseFieldOptions = function(msg, fld, token) {
            var first = true;
            do {
                token = this.tn.next();
                if (token === Lang.OPTCLOSE)
                    break;
                else if (token === Lang.OPTEND) {
                    if (first)
                        throw Error("Illegal start of options in message "+msg.name+"#"+fld.name+" at line "+this.tn.line+": "+token);
                    token = this.tn.next();
                }
                this._parseFieldOption(msg, fld, token);
                first = false;
            } while (true);
        };

        /**
         * Parses a single field option.
         * @param {Object} msg Message definition
         * @param {Object} fld Field definition
         * @param {string} token Initial token
         * @throws {Error} If the mesage field option cannot be parsed
         * @private
         */
        ParserPrototype._parseFieldOption = function(msg, fld, token) {
            var custom = false;
            if (token === Lang.COPTOPEN)
                token = this.tn.next(),
                custom = true;
            if (!Lang.TYPEREF.test(token))
                throw Error("Illegal field option in "+msg.name+"#"+fld.name+" at line "+this.tn.line+": "+token);
            var name = token;
            token = this.tn.next();
            if (custom) {
                if (token !== Lang.COPTCLOSE)
                    throw Error("Illegal delimiter in "+msg.name+"#"+fld.name+" at line "+this.tn.line+": "+token);
                name = '('+name+')';
                token = this.tn.next();
                if (Lang.FQTYPEREF.test(token))
                    name += token,
                    token = this.tn.next();
            }
            if (token !== Lang.EQUAL)
                throw Error("Illegal token in "+msg.name+"#"+fld.name+" at line "+this.tn.line+": "+token);
            var value;
            token = this.tn.peek();
            if (token === Lang.STRINGOPEN || token === Lang.STRINGOPEN_SQ) {
                value = this._parseString();
            } else if (Lang.NUMBER.test(token, true))
                value = this._parseNumber(this.tn.next(), true);
            else if (Lang.BOOL.test(token))
                value = this.tn.next().toLowerCase() === 'true';
            else if (Lang.TYPEREF.test(token))
                value = this.tn.next(); // TODO: Resolve?
            else
                throw Error("Illegal value in message "+msg.name+"#"+fld.name+", option "+name+" at line "+this.tn.line+": "+token);
            fld["options"][name] = value;
        };

        /**
         * Parses an enum.
         * @param {Object} msg Message definition
         * @param {string} token Initial token
         * @throws {Error} If the enum cannot be parsed
         * @private
         */
        ParserPrototype._parseEnum = function(msg, token) {
            /** @dict */
            var enm = {};
            token = this.tn.next();
            if (!Lang.NAME.test(token))
                throw Error("Illegal enum name in message "+msg.name+" at line "+this.tn.line+": "+token);
            enm["name"] = token;
            token = this.tn.next();
            if (token !== Lang.OPEN)
                throw Error("Illegal start of enum "+enm.name+" at line "+this.tn.line+": "+token);
            enm["values"] = [];
            enm["options"] = {};
            do {
                token = this.tn.next();
                if (token === Lang.CLOSE) {
                    token = this.tn.peek();
                    if (token === Lang.END)
                        this.tn.next();
                    break;
                }
                if (token == 'option')
                    this._parseOption(enm, token);
                else {
                    if (!Lang.NAME.test(token))
                        throw Error("Illegal name in enum "+enm.name+" at line "+this.tn.line+": "+token);
                    this._parseEnumValue(enm, token);
                }
            } while (true);
            msg["enums"].push(enm);
        };

        /**
         * Parses an enum value.
         * @param {Object} enm Enum definition
         * @param {string} token Initial token
         * @throws {Error} If the enum value cannot be parsed
         * @private
         */
        ParserPrototype._parseEnumValue = function(enm, token) {
            /** @dict */
            var val = {};
            val["name"] = token;
            token = this.tn.next();
            if (token !== Lang.EQUAL)
                throw Error("Illegal token in enum "+enm.name+" at line "+this.tn.line+": "+token);
            token = this.tn.next();
            try {
                val["id"] = this._parseId(token, true);
            } catch (e) {
                throw Error("Illegal id in enum "+enm.name+" at line "+this.tn.line+": "+token);
            }
            enm["values"].push(val);
            token = this.tn.next();
            if (token === Lang.OPTOPEN) {
                var opt = { 'options' : {} }; // TODO: Actually expose them somehow.
                this._parseFieldOptions(enm, opt, token);
                token = this.tn.next();
            }
            if (token !== Lang.END)
                throw Error("Illegal delimiter in enum "+enm.name+" at line "+this.tn.line+": "+token);
        };

        /**
         * Parses an extensions statement.
         * @param {Object} msg Message object
         * @param {string} token Initial token
         * @throws {Error} If the extensions statement cannot be parsed
         * @private
         */
        ParserPrototype._parseExtensions = function(msg, token) {
            /** @type {Array.<number>} */
            var range = [];
            token = this.tn.next();
            if (token === "min") // FIXME: Does the official implementation support this?
                range.push(ProtoBuf.ID_MIN);
            else if (token === "max")
                range.push(ProtoBuf.ID_MAX);
            else
                range.push(this._parseNumber(token));
            token = this.tn.next();
            if (token !== 'to')
                throw Error("Illegal extensions delimiter in message "+msg.name+" at line "+this.tn.line+": "+token);
            token = this.tn.next();
            if (token === "min")
                range.push(ProtoBuf.ID_MIN);
            else if (token === "max")
                range.push(ProtoBuf.ID_MAX);
            else
                range.push(this._parseNumber(token));
            token = this.tn.next();
            if (token !== Lang.END)
                throw Error("Illegal extensions delimiter in message "+msg.name+" at line "+this.tn.line+": "+token);
            return range;
        };

        /**
         * Parses an extend block.
         * @param {Object} parent Parent object
         * @param {string} token Initial token
         * @throws {Error} If the extend block cannot be parsed
         * @private
         */
        ParserPrototype._parseExtend = function(parent, token) {
            token = this.tn.next();
            if (!Lang.TYPEREF.test(token))
                throw Error("Illegal message name at line "+this.tn.line+": "+token);
            /** @dict */
            var ext = {};
            ext["ref"] = token;
            ext["fields"] = [];
            token = this.tn.next();
            if (token !== Lang.OPEN)
                throw Error("Illegal start of extend "+ext.name+" at line "+this.tn.line+": "+token);
            do {
                token = this.tn.next();
                if (token === Lang.CLOSE) {
                    token = this.tn.peek();
                    if (token == Lang.END)
                        this.tn.next();
                    break;
                } else if (Lang.RULE.test(token))
                    this._parseMessageField(ext, token);
                else if (Lang.TYPEREF.test(token))
                    this._parseMessageField(ext, "optional", token);
                else
                    throw Error("Illegal token in extend "+ext.name+" at line "+this.tn.line+": "+token);
            } while (true);
            parent["messages"].push(ext);
            return ext;
        };

        /**
         * Parses a syntax statement.
         * @param {Object} parent Parent object
         * @throws {Error} If the syntax statement cannot be parsed
         * @private
         */
        ParserPrototype._parseSyntax = function(parent) {
            var token = this.tn.next();
            if (token !== Lang.EQUAL)
                throw Error("Illegal token at line "+this.tn.line+": "+token);
            token = this.tn.peek();
            if (token !== Lang.STRINGOPEN && token !== Lang.STRINGOPEN_SQ)
                throw Error("Illegal token at line "+this.tn.line+": "+token);
            var syntax_str = this._parseString();
            token = this.tn.next();
            if (token !== Lang.END)
                throw Error("Illegal token at line "+this.tn.line+": "+token);
            return syntax_str;
        };

        /**
         * Returns a string representation of this object.
         * @returns {string} String representation as of "Parser"
         */
        ParserPrototype.toString = function() {
            return "Parser";
        };

        /**
         * @alias ProtoBuf.DotProto.Parser
         * @expose
         */
        DotProto.Parser = Parser;

        return DotProto;

    })(ProtoBuf, ProtoBuf.Lang);

    /**
     * @alias ProtoBuf.Reflect
     * @expose
     */
    ProtoBuf.Reflect = (function(ProtoBuf) {
        "use strict";

        /**
         * Reflection types.
         * @exports ProtoBuf.Reflect
         * @namespace
         */
        var Reflect = {};

        /**
         * Constructs a Reflect base class.
         * @exports ProtoBuf.Reflect.T
         * @constructor
         * @abstract
         * @param {!ProtoBuf.Builder} builder Builder reference
         * @param {?ProtoBuf.Reflect.T} parent Parent object
         * @param {string} name Object name
         */
        var T = function(builder, parent, name) {

            /**
             * Builder reference.
             * @type {!ProtoBuf.Builder}
             * @expose
             */
            this.builder = builder;

            /**
             * Parent object.
             * @type {?ProtoBuf.Reflect.T}
             * @expose
             */
            this.parent = parent;

            /**
             * Object name in namespace.
             * @type {string}
             * @expose
             */
            this.name = name;

            /**
             * Fully qualified class name
             * @type {string}
             * @expose
             */
            this.className;
        };

        /**
         * @alias ProtoBuf.Reflect.T.prototype
         * @inner
         */
        var TPrototype = T.prototype;

        /**
         * Returns the fully qualified name of this object.
         * @returns {string} Fully qualified name as of ".PATH.TO.THIS"
         * @expose
         */
        TPrototype.fqn = function() {
            var name = this.name,
                ptr = this;
            do {
                ptr = ptr.parent;
                if (ptr == null)
                    break;
                name = ptr.name+"."+name;
            } while (true);
            return name;
        };

        /**
         * Returns a string representation of this Reflect object (its fully qualified name).
         * @param {boolean=} includeClass Set to true to include the class name. Defaults to false.
         * @return String representation
         * @expose
         */
        TPrototype.toString = function(includeClass) {
            return (includeClass ? this.className + " " : "") + this.fqn();
        };

        /**
         * Builds this type.
         * @throws {Error} If this type cannot be built directly
         * @expose
         */
        TPrototype.build = function() {
            throw Error(this.toString(true)+" cannot be built directly");
        };

        /**
         * @alias ProtoBuf.Reflect.T
         * @expose
         */
        Reflect.T = T;

        /**
         * Constructs a new Namespace.
         * @exports ProtoBuf.Reflect.Namespace
         * @param {!ProtoBuf.Builder} builder Builder reference
         * @param {?ProtoBuf.Reflect.Namespace} parent Namespace parent
         * @param {string} name Namespace name
         * @param {Object.<string,*>=} options Namespace options
         * @param {string?} syntax The syntax level of this definition (e.g., proto3)
         * @constructor
         * @extends ProtoBuf.Reflect.T
         */
        var Namespace = function(builder, parent, name, options, syntax) {
            T.call(this, builder, parent, name);

            /**
             * @override
             */
            this.className = "Namespace";

            /**
             * Children inside the namespace.
             * @type {!Array.<ProtoBuf.Reflect.T>}
             */
            this.children = [];

            /**
             * Options.
             * @type {!Object.<string, *>}
             */
            this.options = options || {};

            /**
             * Syntax level (e.g., proto2 or proto3).
             * @type {!string}
             */
            this.syntax = syntax || "proto2";
        };

        /**
         * @alias ProtoBuf.Reflect.Namespace.prototype
         * @inner
         */
        var NamespacePrototype = Namespace.prototype = Object.create(T.prototype);

        /**
         * Returns an array of the namespace's children.
         * @param {ProtoBuf.Reflect.T=} type Filter type (returns instances of this type only). Defaults to null (all children).
         * @return {Array.<ProtoBuf.Reflect.T>}
         * @expose
         */
        NamespacePrototype.getChildren = function(type) {
            type = type || null;
            if (type == null)
                return this.children.slice();
            var children = [];
            for (var i=0, k=this.children.length; i<k; ++i)
                if (this.children[i] instanceof type)
                    children.push(this.children[i]);
            return children;
        };

        /**
         * Adds a child to the namespace.
         * @param {ProtoBuf.Reflect.T} child Child
         * @throws {Error} If the child cannot be added (duplicate)
         * @expose
         */
        NamespacePrototype.addChild = function(child) {
            var other;
            if (other = this.getChild(child.name)) {
                // Try to revert camelcase transformation on collision
                if (other instanceof Message.Field && other.name !== other.originalName && this.getChild(other.originalName) === null)
                    other.name = other.originalName; // Revert previous first (effectively keeps both originals)
                else if (child instanceof Message.Field && child.name !== child.originalName && this.getChild(child.originalName) === null)
                    child.name = child.originalName;
                else
                    throw Error("Duplicate name in namespace "+this.toString(true)+": "+child.name);
            }
            this.children.push(child);
        };

        /**
         * Gets a child by its name or id.
         * @param {string|number} nameOrId Child name or id
         * @return {?ProtoBuf.Reflect.T} The child or null if not found
         * @expose
         */
        NamespacePrototype.getChild = function(nameOrId) {
            var key = typeof nameOrId === 'number' ? 'id' : 'name';
            for (var i=0, k=this.children.length; i<k; ++i)
                if (this.children[i][key] === nameOrId)
                    return this.children[i];
            return null;
        };

        /**
         * Resolves a reflect object inside of this namespace.
         * @param {string|!Array.<string>} qn Qualified name to resolve
         * @param {boolean=} excludeNonNamespace Excludes non-namespace types, defaults to `false`
         * @return {?ProtoBuf.Reflect.Namespace} The resolved type or null if not found
         * @expose
         */
        NamespacePrototype.resolve = function(qn, excludeNonNamespace) {
            var part = typeof qn === 'string' ? qn.split(".") : qn,
                ptr = this,
                i = 0;
            if (part[i] === "") { // Fully qualified name, e.g. ".My.Message'
                while (ptr.parent !== null)
                    ptr = ptr.parent;
                i++;
            }
            var child;
            do {
                do {
                    if (!(ptr instanceof Reflect.Namespace)) {
                        ptr = null;
                        break;
                    }
                    child = ptr.getChild(part[i]);
                    if (!child || !(child instanceof Reflect.T) || (excludeNonNamespace && !(child instanceof Reflect.Namespace))) {
                        ptr = null;
                        break;
                    }
                    ptr = child; i++;
                } while (i < part.length);
                if (ptr != null)
                    break; // Found
                // Else search the parent
                if (this.parent !== null)
                    return this.parent.resolve(qn, excludeNonNamespace);
            } while (ptr != null);
            return ptr;
        };

        /**
         * Determines the shortest qualified name of the specified type, if any, relative to this namespace.
         * @param {!ProtoBuf.Reflect.T} t Reflection type
         * @returns {string} The shortest qualified name or, if there is none, the fqn
         * @expose
         */
        NamespacePrototype.qn = function(t) {
            var part = [], ptr = t;
            do {
                part.unshift(ptr.name);
                ptr = ptr.parent;
            } while (ptr !== null);
            for (var len=1; len <= part.length; len++) {
                var qn = part.slice(part.length-len);
                if (t === this.resolve(qn, t instanceof Reflect.Namespace))
                    return qn.join(".");
            }
            return t.fqn();
        };

        /**
         * Builds the namespace and returns the runtime counterpart.
         * @return {Object.<string,Function|Object>} Runtime namespace
         * @expose
         */
        NamespacePrototype.build = function() {
            /** @dict */
            var ns = {};
            var children = this.children;
            for (var i=0, k=children.length, child; i<k; ++i) {
                child = children[i];
                if (child instanceof Namespace)
                    ns[child.name] = child.build();
            }
            if (Object.defineProperty)
                Object.defineProperty(ns, "$options", { "value": this.buildOpt() });
            return ns;
        };

        /**
         * Builds the namespace's '$options' property.
         * @return {Object.<string,*>}
         */
        NamespacePrototype.buildOpt = function() {
            var opt = {},
                keys = Object.keys(this.options);
            for (var i=0, k=keys.length; i<k; ++i) {
                var key = keys[i],
                    val = this.options[keys[i]];
                // TODO: Options are not resolved, yet.
                // if (val instanceof Namespace) {
                //     opt[key] = val.build();
                // } else {
                opt[key] = val;
                // }
            }
            return opt;
        };

        /**
         * Gets the value assigned to the option with the specified name.
         * @param {string=} name Returns the option value if specified, otherwise all options are returned.
         * @return {*|Object.<string,*>}null} Option value or NULL if there is no such option
         */
        NamespacePrototype.getOption = function(name) {
            if (typeof name === 'undefined')
                return this.options;
            return typeof this.options[name] !== 'undefined' ? this.options[name] : null;
        };

        /**
         * @alias ProtoBuf.Reflect.Namespace
         * @expose
         */
        Reflect.Namespace = Namespace;

        /**
         * Constructs a new Element implementation that checks and converts values for a
         * particular field type, as appropriate.
         *
         * An Element represents a single value: either the value of a singular field,
         * or a value contained in one entry of a repeated field or map field. This
         * class does not implement these higher-level concepts; it only encapsulates
         * the low-level typechecking and conversion.
         *
         * @exports ProtoBuf.Reflect.Element
         * @param {{name: string, wireType: number}} type Resolved data type
         * @param {ProtoBuf.Reflect.T|null} resolvedType Resolved type, if relevant
         * (e.g. submessage field).
         * @param {boolean} isMapKey Is this element a Map key? The value will be
         * converted to string form if so.
         * @param {string} syntax Syntax level of defining message type, e.g.,
         * proto2 or proto3.
         * @constructor
         */
        var Element = function(type, resolvedType, isMapKey, syntax) {

            /**
             * Element type, as a string (e.g., int32).
             * @type {{name: string, wireType: number}}
             */
            this.type = type;

            /**
             * Element type reference to submessage or enum definition, if needed.
             * @type {ProtoBuf.Reflect.T|null}
             */
            this.resolvedType = resolvedType;

            /**
             * Element is a map key.
             * @type {boolean}
             */
            this.isMapKey = isMapKey;

            /**
             * Syntax level of defining message type, e.g., proto2 or proto3.
             * @type {string}
             */
            this.syntax = syntax;

            if (isMapKey && ProtoBuf.MAP_KEY_TYPES.indexOf(type) < 0)
                throw Error("Invalid map key type: " + type.name);
        };

        var ElementPrototype = Element.prototype;

        /**
         * Obtains a (new) default value for the specified type.
         * @param type {string|{name: string, wireType: number}} Field type
         * @returns {*} Default value
         * @inner
         */
        function mkDefault(type) {
            if (typeof type === 'string')
                type = ProtoBuf.TYPES[type];
            if (typeof type.defaultValue === 'undefined')
                throw Error("default value for type "+type.name+" is not supported");
            if (type == ProtoBuf.TYPES["bytes"])
                return new ByteBuffer(0);
            return type.defaultValue;
        }

        /**
         * Returns the default value for this field in proto3.
         * @function
         * @param type {string|{name: string, wireType: number}} the field type
         * @returns {*} Default value
         */
        ElementPrototype.defaultFieldValue = mkDefault;

        /**
         * Makes a Long from a value.
         * @param {{low: number, high: number, unsigned: boolean}|string|number} value Value
         * @param {boolean=} unsigned Whether unsigned or not, defaults to reuse it from Long-like objects or to signed for
         *  strings and numbers
         * @returns {!Long}
         * @throws {Error} If the value cannot be converted to a Long
         * @inner
         */
        function mkLong(value, unsigned) {
            if (value && typeof value.low === 'number' && typeof value.high === 'number' && typeof value.unsigned === 'boolean'
                && value.low === value.low && value.high === value.high)
                return new ProtoBuf.Long(value.low, value.high, typeof unsigned === 'undefined' ? value.unsigned : unsigned);
            if (typeof value === 'string')
                return ProtoBuf.Long.fromString(value, unsigned || false, 10);
            if (typeof value === 'number')
                return ProtoBuf.Long.fromNumber(value, unsigned || false);
            throw Error("not convertible to Long");
        }

        /**
         * Checks if the given value can be set for an element of this type (singular
         * field or one element of a repeated field or map).
         * @param {*} value Value to check
         * @return {*} Verified, maybe adjusted, value
         * @throws {Error} If the value cannot be verified for this element slot
         * @expose
         */
        ElementPrototype.verifyValue = function(value) {
            var fail = function(val, msg) {
                throw Error("Illegal value for "+this.toString(true)+" of type "+this.type.name+": "+val+" ("+msg+")");
            }.bind(this);
            switch (this.type) {
                // Signed 32bit
                case ProtoBuf.TYPES["int32"]:
                case ProtoBuf.TYPES["sint32"]:
                case ProtoBuf.TYPES["sfixed32"]:
                    // Account for !NaN: value === value
                    if (typeof value !== 'number' || (value === value && value % 1 !== 0))
                        fail(typeof value, "not an integer");
                    return value > 4294967295 ? value | 0 : value;

                // Unsigned 32bit
                case ProtoBuf.TYPES["uint32"]:
                case ProtoBuf.TYPES["fixed32"]:
                    if (typeof value !== 'number' || (value === value && value % 1 !== 0))
                        fail(typeof value, "not an integer");
                    return value < 0 ? value >>> 0 : value;

                // Signed 64bit
                case ProtoBuf.TYPES["int64"]:
                case ProtoBuf.TYPES["sint64"]:
                case ProtoBuf.TYPES["sfixed64"]: {
                    if (ProtoBuf.Long)
                        try {
                            return mkLong(value, false);
                        } catch (e) {
                            fail(typeof value, e.message);
                        }
                    else
                        fail(typeof value, "requires Long.js");
                }

                // Unsigned 64bit
                case ProtoBuf.TYPES["uint64"]:
                case ProtoBuf.TYPES["fixed64"]: {
                    if (ProtoBuf.Long)
                        try {
                            return mkLong(value, true);
                        } catch (e) {
                            fail(typeof value, e.message);
                        }
                    else
                        fail(typeof value, "requires Long.js");
                }

                // Bool
                case ProtoBuf.TYPES["bool"]:
                    if (typeof value !== 'boolean')
                        fail(typeof value, "not a boolean");
                    return value;

                // Float
                case ProtoBuf.TYPES["float"]:
                case ProtoBuf.TYPES["double"]:
                    if (typeof value !== 'number')
                        fail(typeof value, "not a number");
                    return value;

                // Length-delimited string
                case ProtoBuf.TYPES["string"]:
                    if (typeof value !== 'string' && !(value && value instanceof String))
                        fail(typeof value, "not a string");
                    return ""+value; // Convert String object to string

                // Length-delimited bytes
                case ProtoBuf.TYPES["bytes"]:
                    if (ByteBuffer.isByteBuffer(value))
                        return value;
                    return ByteBuffer.wrap(value, "base64");

                // Constant enum value
                case ProtoBuf.TYPES["enum"]: {
                    var values = this.resolvedType.getChildren(ProtoBuf.Reflect.Enum.Value);
                    for (i=0; i<values.length; i++)
                        if (values[i].name == value)
                            return values[i].id;
                        else if (values[i].id == value)
                            return values[i].id;

                    if (this.syntax === 'proto3') {
                        // proto3: just make sure it's an integer.
                        if (typeof value !== 'number' || (value === value && value % 1 !== 0))
                            fail(typeof value, "not an integer");
                        if (value > 4294967295 || value < 0)
                            fail(typeof value, "not in range for uint32")
                        return value;
                    } else {
                        // proto2 requires enum values to be valid.
                        fail(value, "not a valid enum value");
                    }
                }
                // Embedded message
                case ProtoBuf.TYPES["group"]:
                case ProtoBuf.TYPES["message"]: {
                    if (!value || typeof value !== 'object')
                        fail(typeof value, "object expected");
                    if (value instanceof this.resolvedType.clazz)
                        return value;
                    if (value instanceof ProtoBuf.Builder.Message) {
                        // Mismatched type: Convert to object (see: https://github.com/dcodeIO/ProtoBuf.js/issues/180)
                        var obj = {};
                        for (var i in value)
                            if (value.hasOwnProperty(i))
                                obj[i] = value[i];
                        value = obj;
                    }
                    // Else let's try to construct one from a key-value object
                    return new (this.resolvedType.clazz)(value); // May throw for a hundred of reasons
                }
            }

            // We should never end here
            throw Error("[INTERNAL] Illegal value for "+this.toString(true)+": "+value+" (undefined type "+this.type+")");
        };

        /**
         * Calculates the byte length of an element on the wire.
         * @param {number} id Field number
         * @param {*} value Field value
         * @returns {number} Byte length
         * @throws {Error} If the value cannot be calculated
         * @expose
         */
        ElementPrototype.calculateLength = function(id, value) {
            if (value === null) return 0; // Nothing to encode
            // Tag has already been written
            var n;
            switch (this.type) {
                case ProtoBuf.TYPES["int32"]:
                    return value < 0 ? ByteBuffer.calculateVarint64(value) : ByteBuffer.calculateVarint32(value);
                case ProtoBuf.TYPES["uint32"]:
                    return ByteBuffer.calculateVarint32(value);
                case ProtoBuf.TYPES["sint32"]:
                    return ByteBuffer.calculateVarint32(ByteBuffer.zigZagEncode32(value));
                case ProtoBuf.TYPES["fixed32"]:
                case ProtoBuf.TYPES["sfixed32"]:
                case ProtoBuf.TYPES["float"]:
                    return 4;
                case ProtoBuf.TYPES["int64"]:
                case ProtoBuf.TYPES["uint64"]:
                    return ByteBuffer.calculateVarint64(value);
                case ProtoBuf.TYPES["sint64"]:
                    return ByteBuffer.calculateVarint64(ByteBuffer.zigZagEncode64(value));
                case ProtoBuf.TYPES["fixed64"]:
                case ProtoBuf.TYPES["sfixed64"]:
                    return 8;
                case ProtoBuf.TYPES["bool"]:
                    return 1;
                case ProtoBuf.TYPES["enum"]:
                    return ByteBuffer.calculateVarint32(value);
                case ProtoBuf.TYPES["double"]:
                    return 8;
                case ProtoBuf.TYPES["string"]:
                    n = ByteBuffer.calculateUTF8Bytes(value);
                    return ByteBuffer.calculateVarint32(n) + n;
                case ProtoBuf.TYPES["bytes"]:
                    if (value.remaining() < 0)
                        throw Error("Illegal value for "+this.toString(true)+": "+value.remaining()+" bytes remaining");
                    return ByteBuffer.calculateVarint32(value.remaining()) + value.remaining();
                case ProtoBuf.TYPES["message"]:
                    n = this.resolvedType.calculate(value);
                    return ByteBuffer.calculateVarint32(n) + n;
                case ProtoBuf.TYPES["group"]:
                    n = this.resolvedType.calculate(value);
                    return n + ByteBuffer.calculateVarint32((id << 3) | ProtoBuf.WIRE_TYPES.ENDGROUP);
            }
            // We should never end here
            throw Error("[INTERNAL] Illegal value to encode in "+this.toString(true)+": "+value+" (unknown type)");
        };

        /**
         * Encodes a value to the specified buffer. Does not encode the key.
         * @param {number} id Field number
         * @param {*} value Field value
         * @param {ByteBuffer} buffer ByteBuffer to encode to
         * @return {ByteBuffer} The ByteBuffer for chaining
         * @throws {Error} If the value cannot be encoded
         * @expose
         */
        ElementPrototype.encodeValue = function(id, value, buffer) {
            if (value === null) return buffer; // Nothing to encode
            // Tag has already been written

            switch (this.type) {
                // 32bit signed varint
                case ProtoBuf.TYPES["int32"]:
                    // "If you use int32 or int64 as the type for a negative number, the resulting varint is always ten bytes
                    // long – it is, effectively, treated like a very large unsigned integer." (see #122)
                    if (value < 0)
                        buffer.writeVarint64(value);
                    else
                        buffer.writeVarint32(value);
                    break;

                // 32bit unsigned varint
                case ProtoBuf.TYPES["uint32"]:
                    buffer.writeVarint32(value);
                    break;

                // 32bit varint zig-zag
                case ProtoBuf.TYPES["sint32"]:
                    buffer.writeVarint32ZigZag(value);
                    break;

                // Fixed unsigned 32bit
                case ProtoBuf.TYPES["fixed32"]:
                    buffer.writeUint32(value);
                    break;

                // Fixed signed 32bit
                case ProtoBuf.TYPES["sfixed32"]:
                    buffer.writeInt32(value);
                    break;

                // 64bit varint as-is
                case ProtoBuf.TYPES["int64"]:
                case ProtoBuf.TYPES["uint64"]:
                    buffer.writeVarint64(value); // throws
                    break;

                // 64bit varint zig-zag
                case ProtoBuf.TYPES["sint64"]:
                    buffer.writeVarint64ZigZag(value); // throws
                    break;

                // Fixed unsigned 64bit
                case ProtoBuf.TYPES["fixed64"]:
                    buffer.writeUint64(value); // throws
                    break;

                // Fixed signed 64bit
                case ProtoBuf.TYPES["sfixed64"]:
                    buffer.writeInt64(value); // throws
                    break;

                // Bool
                case ProtoBuf.TYPES["bool"]:
                    if (typeof value === 'string')
                        buffer.writeVarint32(value.toLowerCase() === 'false' ? 0 : !!value);
                    else
                        buffer.writeVarint32(value ? 1 : 0);
                    break;

                // Constant enum value
                case ProtoBuf.TYPES["enum"]:
                    buffer.writeVarint32(value);
                    break;

                // 32bit float
                case ProtoBuf.TYPES["float"]:
                    buffer.writeFloat32(value);
                    break;

                // 64bit float
                case ProtoBuf.TYPES["double"]:
                    buffer.writeFloat64(value);
                    break;

                // Length-delimited string
                case ProtoBuf.TYPES["string"]:
                    buffer.writeVString(value);
                    break;

                // Length-delimited bytes
                case ProtoBuf.TYPES["bytes"]:
                    if (value.remaining() < 0)
                        throw Error("Illegal value for "+this.toString(true)+": "+value.remaining()+" bytes remaining");
                    var prevOffset = value.offset;
                    buffer.writeVarint32(value.remaining());
                    buffer.append(value);
                    value.offset = prevOffset;
                    break;

                // Embedded message
                case ProtoBuf.TYPES["message"]:
                    var bb = new ByteBuffer().LE();
                    this.resolvedType.encode(value, bb);
                    buffer.writeVarint32(bb.offset);
                    buffer.append(bb.flip());
                    break;

                // Legacy group
                case ProtoBuf.TYPES["group"]:
                    this.resolvedType.encode(value, buffer);
                    buffer.writeVarint32((id << 3) | ProtoBuf.WIRE_TYPES.ENDGROUP);
                    break;

                default:
                    // We should never end here
                    throw Error("[INTERNAL] Illegal value to encode in "+this.toString(true)+": "+value+" (unknown type)");
            }
            return buffer;
        };

        /**
         * Decode one element value from the specified buffer.
         * @param {ByteBuffer} buffer ByteBuffer to decode from
         * @param {number} wireType The field wire type
         * @param {number} id The field number
         * @return {*} Decoded value
         * @throws {Error} If the field cannot be decoded
         * @expose
         */
        ElementPrototype.decode = function(buffer, wireType, id) {
            if (wireType != this.type.wireType)
                throw Error("Unexpected wire type for element");

            var value, nBytes;
            switch (this.type) {
                // 32bit signed varint
                case ProtoBuf.TYPES["int32"]:
                    return buffer.readVarint32() | 0;

                // 32bit unsigned varint
                case ProtoBuf.TYPES["uint32"]:
                    return buffer.readVarint32() >>> 0;

                // 32bit signed varint zig-zag
                case ProtoBuf.TYPES["sint32"]:
                    return buffer.readVarint32ZigZag() | 0;

                // Fixed 32bit unsigned
                case ProtoBuf.TYPES["fixed32"]:
                    return buffer.readUint32() >>> 0;

                case ProtoBuf.TYPES["sfixed32"]:
                    return buffer.readInt32() | 0;

                // 64bit signed varint
                case ProtoBuf.TYPES["int64"]:
                    return buffer.readVarint64();

                // 64bit unsigned varint
                case ProtoBuf.TYPES["uint64"]:
                    return buffer.readVarint64().toUnsigned();

                // 64bit signed varint zig-zag
                case ProtoBuf.TYPES["sint64"]:
                    return buffer.readVarint64ZigZag();

                // Fixed 64bit unsigned
                case ProtoBuf.TYPES["fixed64"]:
                    return buffer.readUint64();

                // Fixed 64bit signed
                case ProtoBuf.TYPES["sfixed64"]:
                    return buffer.readInt64();

                // Bool varint
                case ProtoBuf.TYPES["bool"]:
                    return !!buffer.readVarint32();

                // Constant enum value (varint)
                case ProtoBuf.TYPES["enum"]:
                    // The following Builder.Message#set will already throw
                    return buffer.readVarint32();

                // 32bit float
                case ProtoBuf.TYPES["float"]:
                    return buffer.readFloat();

                // 64bit float
                case ProtoBuf.TYPES["double"]:
                    return buffer.readDouble();

                // Length-delimited string
                case ProtoBuf.TYPES["string"]:
                    return buffer.readVString();

                // Length-delimited bytes
                case ProtoBuf.TYPES["bytes"]: {
                    nBytes = buffer.readVarint32();
                    if (buffer.remaining() < nBytes)
                        throw Error("Illegal number of bytes for "+this.toString(true)+": "+nBytes+" required but got only "+buffer.remaining());
                    value = buffer.clone(); // Offset already set
                    value.limit = value.offset+nBytes;
                    buffer.offset += nBytes;
                    return value;
                }

                // Length-delimited embedded message
                case ProtoBuf.TYPES["message"]: {
                    nBytes = buffer.readVarint32();
                    return this.resolvedType.decode(buffer, nBytes);
                }

                // Legacy group
                case ProtoBuf.TYPES["group"]:
                    return this.resolvedType.decode(buffer, -1, id);
            }

            // We should never end here
            throw Error("[INTERNAL] Illegal decode type");
        };

        /**
         * Converts a value from a string to the canonical element type.
         *
         * Legal only when isMapKey is true.
         *
         * @param {string} str The string value
         * @returns {*} The value
         */
        ElementPrototype.valueFromString = function(str) {
            if (!this.isMapKey) {
                throw Error("valueFromString() called on non-map-key element");
            }

            switch (this.type) {
                case ProtoBuf.TYPES["int32"]:
                case ProtoBuf.TYPES["sint32"]:
                case ProtoBuf.TYPES["sfixed32"]:
                case ProtoBuf.TYPES["uint32"]:
                case ProtoBuf.TYPES["fixed32"]:
                    return this.verifyValue(parseInt(str));

                case ProtoBuf.TYPES["int64"]:
                case ProtoBuf.TYPES["sint64"]:
                case ProtoBuf.TYPES["sfixed64"]:
                case ProtoBuf.TYPES["uint64"]:
                case ProtoBuf.TYPES["fixed64"]:
                      // Long-based fields support conversions from string already.
                      return this.verifyValue(str);

                case ProtoBuf.TYPES["bool"]:
                      return str === "true";

                case ProtoBuf.TYPES["string"]:
                      return this.verifyValue(str);

                case ProtoBuf.TYPES["bytes"]:
                      return ByteBuffer.fromBinary(str);
            }
        };

        /**
         * Converts a value from the canonical element type to a string.
         *
         * It should be the case that `valueFromString(valueToString(val))` returns
         * a value equivalent to `verifyValue(val)` for every legal value of `val`
         * according to this element type.
         *
         * This may be used when the element must be stored or used as a string,
         * e.g., as a map key on an Object.
         *
         * Legal only when isMapKey is true.
         *
         * @param {*} val The value
         * @returns {string} The string form of the value.
         */
        ElementPrototype.valueToString = function(value) {
            if (!this.isMapKey) {
                throw Error("valueToString() called on non-map-key element");
            }

            if (this.type === ProtoBuf.TYPES["bytes"]) {
                return value.toString("binary");
            } else {
                return value.toString();
            }
        };

        /**
         * @alias ProtoBuf.Reflect.Element
         * @expose
         */
        Reflect.Element = Element;

        /**
         * Constructs a new Message.
         * @exports ProtoBuf.Reflect.Message
         * @param {!ProtoBuf.Builder} builder Builder reference
         * @param {!ProtoBuf.Reflect.Namespace} parent Parent message or namespace
         * @param {string} name Message name
         * @param {Object.<string,*>=} options Message options
         * @param {boolean=} isGroup `true` if this is a legacy group
         * @param {string?} syntax The syntax level of this definition (e.g., proto3)
         * @constructor
         * @extends ProtoBuf.Reflect.Namespace
         */
        var Message = function(builder, parent, name, options, isGroup, syntax) {
            Namespace.call(this, builder, parent, name, options, syntax);

            /**
             * @override
             */
            this.className = "Message";

            /**
             * Extensions range.
             * @type {!Array.<number>}
             * @expose
             */
            this.extensions = [ProtoBuf.ID_MIN, ProtoBuf.ID_MAX];

            /**
             * Runtime message class.
             * @type {?function(new:ProtoBuf.Builder.Message)}
             * @expose
             */
            this.clazz = null;

            /**
             * Whether this is a legacy group or not.
             * @type {boolean}
             * @expose
             */
            this.isGroup = !!isGroup;

            // The following cached collections are used to efficiently iterate over or look up fields when decoding.

            /**
             * Cached fields.
             * @type {?Array.<!ProtoBuf.Reflect.Message.Field>}
             * @private
             */
            this._fields = null;

            /**
             * Cached fields by id.
             * @type {?Object.<number,!ProtoBuf.Reflect.Message.Field>}
             * @private
             */
            this._fieldsById = null;

            /**
             * Cached fields by name.
             * @type {?Object.<string,!ProtoBuf.Reflect.Message.Field>}
             * @private
             */
            this._fieldsByName = null;
        };

        /**
         * @alias ProtoBuf.Reflect.Message.prototype
         * @inner
         */
        var MessagePrototype = Message.prototype = Object.create(Namespace.prototype);

        /**
         * Builds the message and returns the runtime counterpart, which is a fully functional class.
         * @see ProtoBuf.Builder.Message
         * @param {boolean=} rebuild Whether to rebuild or not, defaults to false
         * @return {ProtoBuf.Reflect.Message} Message class
         * @throws {Error} If the message cannot be built
         * @expose
         */
        MessagePrototype.build = function(rebuild) {
            if (this.clazz && !rebuild)
                return this.clazz;

            // Create the runtime Message class in its own scope
            var clazz = (function(ProtoBuf, T) {

                var fields = T.getChildren(ProtoBuf.Reflect.Message.Field),
                    oneofs = T.getChildren(ProtoBuf.Reflect.Message.OneOf);

                /**
                 * Constructs a new runtime Message.
                 * @name ProtoBuf.Builder.Message
                 * @class Barebone of all runtime messages.
                 * @param {!Object.<string,*>|string} values Preset values
                 * @param {...string} var_args
                 * @constructor
                 * @throws {Error} If the message cannot be created
                 */
                var Message = function(values, var_args) {
                    ProtoBuf.Builder.Message.call(this);

                    // Create virtual oneof properties
                    for (var i=0, k=oneofs.length; i<k; ++i)
                        this[oneofs[i].name] = null;
                    // Create fields and set default values
                    for (i=0, k=fields.length; i<k; ++i) {
                        var field = fields[i];
                        this[field.name] =
                            field.repeated ? [] :
                            (field.map ? new ProtoBuf.Map(field) : null);
                        if ((field.required || T.syntax === 'proto3') &&
                            field.defaultValue !== null)
                            this[field.name] = field.defaultValue;
                    }

                    if (arguments.length > 0) {
                        var value;
                        // Set field values from a values object
                        if (arguments.length === 1 && values !== null && typeof values === 'object' &&
                            /* not _another_ Message */ (typeof values.encode !== 'function' || values instanceof Message) &&
                            /* not a repeated field */ !Array.isArray(values) &&
                            /* not a Map */ !(values instanceof ProtoBuf.Map) &&
                            /* not a ByteBuffer */ !ByteBuffer.isByteBuffer(values) &&
                            /* not an ArrayBuffer */ !(values instanceof ArrayBuffer) &&
                            /* not a Long */ !(ProtoBuf.Long && values instanceof ProtoBuf.Long)) {
                            this.$set(values);
                        } else // Set field values from arguments, in declaration order
                            for (i=0, k=arguments.length; i<k; ++i)
                                if (typeof (value = arguments[i]) !== 'undefined')
                                    this.$set(fields[i].name, value); // May throw
                    }
                };

                /**
                 * @alias ProtoBuf.Builder.Message.prototype
                 * @inner
                 */
                var MessagePrototype = Message.prototype = Object.create(ProtoBuf.Builder.Message.prototype);

                /**
                 * Adds a value to a repeated field.
                 * @name ProtoBuf.Builder.Message#add
                 * @function
                 * @param {string} key Field name
                 * @param {*} value Value to add
                 * @param {boolean=} noAssert Whether to assert the value or not (asserts by default)
                 * @returns {!ProtoBuf.Builder.Message} this
                 * @throws {Error} If the value cannot be added
                 * @expose
                 */
                MessagePrototype.add = function(key, value, noAssert) {
                    var field = T._fieldsByName[key];
                    if (!noAssert) {
                        if (!field)
                            throw Error(this+"#"+key+" is undefined");
                        if (!(field instanceof ProtoBuf.Reflect.Message.Field))
                            throw Error(this+"#"+key+" is not a field: "+field.toString(true)); // May throw if it's an enum or embedded message
                        if (!field.repeated)
                            throw Error(this+"#"+key+" is not a repeated field");
                        value = field.verifyValue(value, true);
                    }
                    if (this[key] === null)
                        this[key] = [];
                    this[key].push(value);
                    return this;
                };

                /**
                 * Adds a value to a repeated field. This is an alias for {@link ProtoBuf.Builder.Message#add}.
                 * @name ProtoBuf.Builder.Message#$add
                 * @function
                 * @param {string} key Field name
                 * @param {*} value Value to add
                 * @param {boolean=} noAssert Whether to assert the value or not (asserts by default)
                 * @returns {!ProtoBuf.Builder.Message} this
                 * @throws {Error} If the value cannot be added
                 * @expose
                 */
                MessagePrototype.$add = MessagePrototype.add;

                /**
                 * Sets a field's value.
                 * @name ProtoBuf.Builder.Message#set
                 * @function
                 * @param {string|!Object.<string,*>} keyOrObj String key or plain object holding multiple values
                 * @param {(*|boolean)=} value Value to set if key is a string, otherwise omitted
                 * @param {boolean=} noAssert Whether to not assert for an actual field / proper value type, defaults to `false`
                 * @returns {!ProtoBuf.Builder.Message} this
                 * @throws {Error} If the value cannot be set
                 * @expose
                 */
                MessagePrototype.set = function(keyOrObj, value, noAssert) {
                    if (keyOrObj && typeof keyOrObj === 'object') {
                        noAssert = value;
                        for (var ikey in keyOrObj)
                            if (keyOrObj.hasOwnProperty(ikey) && typeof (value = keyOrObj[ikey]) !== 'undefined')
                                this.$set(ikey, value, noAssert);
                        return this;
                    }
                    var field = T._fieldsByName[keyOrObj];
                    if (!noAssert) {
                        if (!field)
                            throw Error(this+"#"+keyOrObj+" is not a field: undefined");
                        if (!(field instanceof ProtoBuf.Reflect.Message.Field))
                            throw Error(this+"#"+keyOrObj+" is not a field: "+field.toString(true));
                        this[field.name] = (value = field.verifyValue(value)); // May throw
                    } else
                        this[keyOrObj] = value;
                    if (field && field.oneof) {
                        if (value !== null) {
                            if (this[field.oneof.name] !== null)
                                this[this[field.oneof.name]] = null; // Unset the previous (field name is the oneof field's value)
                            this[field.oneof.name] = field.name;
                        } else if (field.oneof.name === keyOrObj)
                            this[field.oneof.name] = null;
                    }
                    return this;
                };

                /**
                 * Sets a field's value. This is an alias for [@link ProtoBuf.Builder.Message#set}.
                 * @name ProtoBuf.Builder.Message#$set
                 * @function
                 * @param {string|!Object.<string,*>} keyOrObj String key or plain object holding multiple values
                 * @param {(*|boolean)=} value Value to set if key is a string, otherwise omitted
                 * @param {boolean=} noAssert Whether to not assert the value, defaults to `false`
                 * @throws {Error} If the value cannot be set
                 * @expose
                 */
                MessagePrototype.$set = MessagePrototype.set;

                /**
                 * Gets a field's value.
                 * @name ProtoBuf.Builder.Message#get
                 * @function
                 * @param {string} key Key
                 * @param {boolean=} noAssert Whether to not assert for an actual field, defaults to `false`
                 * @return {*} Value
                 * @throws {Error} If there is no such field
                 * @expose
                 */
                MessagePrototype.get = function(key, noAssert) {
                    if (noAssert)
                        return this[key];
                    var field = T._fieldsByName[key];
                    if (!field || !(field instanceof ProtoBuf.Reflect.Message.Field))
                        throw Error(this+"#"+key+" is not a field: undefined");
                    if (!(field instanceof ProtoBuf.Reflect.Message.Field))
                        throw Error(this+"#"+key+" is not a field: "+field.toString(true));
                    return this[field.name];
                };

                /**
                 * Gets a field's value. This is an alias for {@link ProtoBuf.Builder.Message#$get}.
                 * @name ProtoBuf.Builder.Message#$get
                 * @function
                 * @param {string} key Key
                 * @return {*} Value
                 * @throws {Error} If there is no such field
                 * @expose
                 */
                MessagePrototype.$get = MessagePrototype.get;

                // Getters and setters

                for (var i=0; i<fields.length; i++) {
                    var field = fields[i];
                    // no setters for extension fields as these are named by their fqn
                    if (field instanceof ProtoBuf.Reflect.Message.ExtensionField)
                        continue;

                    if (T.builder.options['populateAccessors'])
                        (function(field) {
                            // set/get[SomeValue]
                            var Name = field.originalName.replace(/(_[a-zA-Z])/g, function(match) {
                                return match.toUpperCase().replace('_','');
                            });
                            Name = Name.substring(0,1).toUpperCase() + Name.substring(1);

                            // set/get_[some_value] FIXME: Do we really need these?
                            var name = field.originalName.replace(/([A-Z])/g, function(match) {
                                return "_"+match;
                            });

                            /**
                             * The current field's unbound setter function.
                             * @function
                             * @param {*} value
                             * @param {boolean=} noAssert
                             * @returns {!ProtoBuf.Builder.Message}
                             * @inner
                             */
                            var setter = function(value, noAssert) {
                                this[field.name] = noAssert ? value : field.verifyValue(value);
                                return this;
                            };

                            /**
                             * The current field's unbound getter function.
                             * @function
                             * @returns {*}
                             * @inner
                             */
                            var getter = function() {
                                return this[field.name];
                            };

                            if (T.getChild("set"+Name) === null)
                                /**
                                 * Sets a value. This method is present for each field, but only if there is no name conflict with
                                 *  another field.
                                 * @name ProtoBuf.Builder.Message#set[SomeField]
                                 * @function
                                 * @param {*} value Value to set
                                 * @param {boolean=} noAssert Whether to not assert the value, defaults to `false`
                                 * @returns {!ProtoBuf.Builder.Message} this
                                 * @abstract
                                 * @throws {Error} If the value cannot be set
                                 */
                                MessagePrototype["set"+Name] = setter;

                            if (T.getChild("set_"+name) === null)
                                /**
                                 * Sets a value. This method is present for each field, but only if there is no name conflict with
                                 *  another field.
                                 * @name ProtoBuf.Builder.Message#set_[some_field]
                                 * @function
                                 * @param {*} value Value to set
                                 * @param {boolean=} noAssert Whether to not assert the value, defaults to `false`
                                 * @returns {!ProtoBuf.Builder.Message} this
                                 * @abstract
                                 * @throws {Error} If the value cannot be set
                                 */
                                MessagePrototype["set_"+name] = setter;

                            if (T.getChild("get"+Name) === null)
                                /**
                                 * Gets a value. This method is present for each field, but only if there is no name conflict with
                                 *  another field.
                                 * @name ProtoBuf.Builder.Message#get[SomeField]
                                 * @function
                                 * @abstract
                                 * @return {*} The value
                                 */
                                MessagePrototype["get"+Name] = getter;

                            if (T.getChild("get_"+name) === null)
                                /**
                                 * Gets a value. This method is present for each field, but only if there is no name conflict with
                                 *  another field.
                                 * @name ProtoBuf.Builder.Message#get_[some_field]
                                 * @function
                                 * @return {*} The value
                                 * @abstract
                                 */
                                MessagePrototype["get_"+name] = getter;

                        })(field);
                }

                // En-/decoding

                /**
                 * Encodes the message.
                 * @name ProtoBuf.Builder.Message#$encode
                 * @function
                 * @param {(!ByteBuffer|boolean)=} buffer ByteBuffer to encode to. Will create a new one and flip it if omitted.
                 * @param {boolean=} noVerify Whether to not verify field values, defaults to `false`
                 * @return {!ByteBuffer} Encoded message as a ByteBuffer
                 * @throws {Error} If the message cannot be encoded or if required fields are missing. The later still
                 *  returns the encoded ByteBuffer in the `encoded` property on the error.
                 * @expose
                 * @see ProtoBuf.Builder.Message#encode64
                 * @see ProtoBuf.Builder.Message#encodeHex
                 * @see ProtoBuf.Builder.Message#encodeAB
                 */
                MessagePrototype.encode = function(buffer, noVerify) {
                    if (typeof buffer === 'boolean')
                        noVerify = buffer,
                        buffer = undefined;
                    var isNew = false;
                    if (!buffer)
                        buffer = new ByteBuffer(),
                        isNew = true;
                    var le = buffer.littleEndian;
                    try {
                        T.encode(this, buffer.LE(), noVerify);
                        return (isNew ? buffer.flip() : buffer).LE(le);
                    } catch (e) {
                        buffer.LE(le);
                        throw(e);
                    }
                };

                /**
                 * Encodes a message using the specified data payload.
                 * @param {!Object.<string,*>} data Data payload
                 * @param {(!ByteBuffer|boolean)=} buffer ByteBuffer to encode to. Will create a new one and flip it if omitted.
                 * @param {boolean=} noVerify Whether to not verify field values, defaults to `false`
                 * @return {!ByteBuffer} Encoded message as a ByteBuffer
                 * @expose
                 */
                Message.encode = function(data, buffer, noVerify) {
                    return new Message(data).encode(buffer, noVerify);
                };

                /**
                 * Calculates the byte length of the message.
                 * @name ProtoBuf.Builder.Message#calculate
                 * @function
                 * @returns {number} Byte length
                 * @throws {Error} If the message cannot be calculated or if required fields are missing.
                 * @expose
                 */
                MessagePrototype.calculate = function() {
                    return T.calculate(this);
                };

                /**
                 * Encodes the varint32 length-delimited message.
                 * @name ProtoBuf.Builder.Message#encodeDelimited
                 * @function
                 * @param {(!ByteBuffer|boolean)=} buffer ByteBuffer to encode to. Will create a new one and flip it if omitted.
                 * @return {!ByteBuffer} Encoded message as a ByteBuffer
                 * @throws {Error} If the message cannot be encoded or if required fields are missing. The later still
                 *  returns the encoded ByteBuffer in the `encoded` property on the error.
                 * @expose
                 */
                MessagePrototype.encodeDelimited = function(buffer) {
                    var isNew = false;
                    if (!buffer)
                        buffer = new ByteBuffer(),
                        isNew = true;
                    var enc = new ByteBuffer().LE();
                    T.encode(this, enc).flip();
                    buffer.writeVarint32(enc.remaining());
                    buffer.append(enc);
                    return isNew ? buffer.flip() : buffer;
                };

                /**
                 * Directly encodes the message to an ArrayBuffer.
                 * @name ProtoBuf.Builder.Message#encodeAB
                 * @function
                 * @return {ArrayBuffer} Encoded message as ArrayBuffer
                 * @throws {Error} If the message cannot be encoded or if required fields are missing. The later still
                 *  returns the encoded ArrayBuffer in the `encoded` property on the error.
                 * @expose
                 */
                MessagePrototype.encodeAB = function() {
                    try {
                        return this.encode().toArrayBuffer();
                    } catch (e) {
                        if (e["encoded"]) e["encoded"] = e["encoded"].toArrayBuffer();
                        throw(e);
                    }
                };

                /**
                 * Returns the message as an ArrayBuffer. This is an alias for {@link ProtoBuf.Builder.Message#encodeAB}.
                 * @name ProtoBuf.Builder.Message#toArrayBuffer
                 * @function
                 * @return {ArrayBuffer} Encoded message as ArrayBuffer
                 * @throws {Error} If the message cannot be encoded or if required fields are missing. The later still
                 *  returns the encoded ArrayBuffer in the `encoded` property on the error.
                 * @expose
                 */
                MessagePrototype.toArrayBuffer = MessagePrototype.encodeAB;

                /**
                 * Directly encodes the message to a node Buffer.
                 * @name ProtoBuf.Builder.Message#encodeNB
                 * @function
                 * @return {!Buffer}
                 * @throws {Error} If the message cannot be encoded, not running under node.js or if required fields are
                 *  missing. The later still returns the encoded node Buffer in the `encoded` property on the error.
                 * @expose
                 */
                MessagePrototype.encodeNB = function() {
                    try {
                        return this.encode().toBuffer();
                    } catch (e) {
                        if (e["encoded"]) e["encoded"] = e["encoded"].toBuffer();
                        throw(e);
                    }
                };

                /**
                 * Returns the message as a node Buffer. This is an alias for {@link ProtoBuf.Builder.Message#encodeNB}.
                 * @name ProtoBuf.Builder.Message#toBuffer
                 * @function
                 * @return {!Buffer}
                 * @throws {Error} If the message cannot be encoded or if required fields are missing. The later still
                 *  returns the encoded node Buffer in the `encoded` property on the error.
                 * @expose
                 */
                MessagePrototype.toBuffer = MessagePrototype.encodeNB;

                /**
                 * Directly encodes the message to a base64 encoded string.
                 * @name ProtoBuf.Builder.Message#encode64
                 * @function
                 * @return {string} Base64 encoded string
                 * @throws {Error} If the underlying buffer cannot be encoded or if required fields are missing. The later
                 *  still returns the encoded base64 string in the `encoded` property on the error.
                 * @expose
                 */
                MessagePrototype.encode64 = function() {
                    try {
                        return this.encode().toBase64();
                    } catch (e) {
                        if (e["encoded"]) e["encoded"] = e["encoded"].toBase64();
                        throw(e);
                    }
                };

                /**
                 * Returns the message as a base64 encoded string. This is an alias for {@link ProtoBuf.Builder.Message#encode64}.
                 * @name ProtoBuf.Builder.Message#toBase64
                 * @function
                 * @return {string} Base64 encoded string
                 * @throws {Error} If the message cannot be encoded or if required fields are missing. The later still
                 *  returns the encoded base64 string in the `encoded` property on the error.
                 * @expose
                 */
                MessagePrototype.toBase64 = MessagePrototype.encode64;

                /**
                 * Directly encodes the message to a hex encoded string.
                 * @name ProtoBuf.Builder.Message#encodeHex
                 * @function
                 * @return {string} Hex encoded string
                 * @throws {Error} If the underlying buffer cannot be encoded or if required fields are missing. The later
                 *  still returns the encoded hex string in the `encoded` property on the error.
                 * @expose
                 */
                MessagePrototype.encodeHex = function() {
                    try {
                        return this.encode().toHex();
                    } catch (e) {
                        if (e["encoded"]) e["encoded"] = e["encoded"].toHex();
                        throw(e);
                    }
                };

                /**
                 * Returns the message as a hex encoded string. This is an alias for {@link ProtoBuf.Builder.Message#encodeHex}.
                 * @name ProtoBuf.Builder.Message#toHex
                 * @function
                 * @return {string} Hex encoded string
                 * @throws {Error} If the message cannot be encoded or if required fields are missing. The later still
                 *  returns the encoded hex string in the `encoded` property on the error.
                 * @expose
                 */
                MessagePrototype.toHex = MessagePrototype.encodeHex;

                /**
                 * Clones a message object or field value to a raw object.
                 * @param {*} obj Object to clone
                 * @param {boolean} binaryAsBase64 Whether to include binary data as base64 strings or as a buffer otherwise
                 * @param {boolean} longsAsStrings Whether to encode longs as strings
                 * @param {{name: string, wireType: number}} fieldType The field type, if
                 * appropriate
                 * @param {ProtoBuf.Reflect.T} resolvedType The resolved field type, if appropriate
                 * @returns {*} Cloned object
                 * @inner
                 */
                function cloneRaw(obj, binaryAsBase64, longsAsStrings, fieldType, resolvedType) {
                    var clone = undefined;
                    if (obj === null || typeof obj !== 'object') {
                        if (fieldType == ProtoBuf.TYPES["enum"]) {
                            var values = resolvedType.getChildren(ProtoBuf.Reflect.Enum.Value);
                            for (var i = 0; i < values.length; i++) {
                                if (values[i]['id'] === obj) {
                                    obj = values[i]['name'];
                                    break;
                                }
                            }
                        }
                        clone = obj;
                    } else if (ByteBuffer.isByteBuffer(obj)) {
                        if (binaryAsBase64) {
                            clone = obj.toBase64();
                        } else {
                            clone = obj.toBuffer();
                        }
                    } else if (Array.isArray(obj)) {
                        var src = obj;
                        clone = [];
                        for (var idx = 0; idx < src.length; idx++)
                            clone.push(cloneRaw(src[idx], binaryAsBase64, longsAsStrings, fieldType, resolvedType));
                    } else if (obj instanceof ProtoBuf.Map) {
                        var it = obj.entries();
                        clone = {};
                        for (var e = it.next(); !e.done; e = it.next())
                            clone[obj.keyElem.valueToString(e.value[0])] = cloneRaw(e.value[1], binaryAsBase64, longsAsStrings, obj.valueElem.type, obj.valueElem.resolvedType);
                    } else if (obj instanceof ProtoBuf.Long) {
                        if (longsAsStrings)
                            // int64s are encoded as strings
                            clone = obj.toString();
                        else
                            clone = new ProtoBuf.Long(obj);
                    } else { // is a non-null object
                        clone = {};
                        var type = obj.$type;
                        var field = undefined;
                        for (var i in obj) {
                            if (obj.hasOwnProperty(i)) {
                                var value = obj[i];
                                if (type) {
                                    field = type.getChild(i);
                                }
                                clone[i] = cloneRaw(value, binaryAsBase64, longsAsStrings, field.type, field.resolvedType);
                            }
                        }
                    }
                    return clone;
                }

                /**
                 * Returns the message's raw payload.
                 * @param {boolean=} binaryAsBase64 Whether to include binary data as base64 strings instead of Buffers, defaults to `false`
                 * @param {boolean} longsAsStrings Whether to encode longs as strings
                 * @returns {Object.<string,*>} Raw payload
                 * @expose
                 */
                MessagePrototype.toRaw = function(binaryAsBase64, longsAsStrings) {
                    return cloneRaw(this, !!binaryAsBase64, !!longsAsStrings, ProtoBuf.TYPES["message"], this.$type);
                };

                /**
                 * Encodes a message to JSON.
                 * @returns {string} JSON string
                 * @expose
                 */
                MessagePrototype.encodeJSON = function() {
                    return JSON.stringify(
                        cloneRaw(this,
                             /* binary-as-base64 */ true,
                             /* longs-as-strings */ true,
                             ProtoBuf.TYPES["message"],
                             this.$type
                        )
                    );
                };

                /**
                 * Decodes a message from the specified buffer or string.
                 * @name ProtoBuf.Builder.Message.decode
                 * @function
                 * @param {!ByteBuffer|!ArrayBuffer|!Buffer|string} buffer Buffer to decode from
                 * @param {string=} enc Encoding if buffer is a string: hex, utf8 (not recommended), defaults to base64
                 * @return {!ProtoBuf.Builder.Message} Decoded message
                 * @throws {Error} If the message cannot be decoded or if required fields are missing. The later still
                 *  returns the decoded message with missing fields in the `decoded` property on the error.
                 * @expose
                 * @see ProtoBuf.Builder.Message.decode64
                 * @see ProtoBuf.Builder.Message.decodeHex
                 */
                Message.decode = function(buffer, enc) {
                    if (typeof buffer === 'string')
                        buffer = ByteBuffer.wrap(buffer, enc ? enc : "base64");
                    buffer = ByteBuffer.isByteBuffer(buffer) ? buffer : ByteBuffer.wrap(buffer); // May throw
                    var le = buffer.littleEndian;
                    try {
                        var msg = T.decode(buffer.LE());
                        buffer.LE(le);
                        return msg;
                    } catch (e) {
                        buffer.LE(le);
                        throw(e);
                    }
                };

                /**
                 * Decodes a varint32 length-delimited message from the specified buffer or string.
                 * @name ProtoBuf.Builder.Message.decodeDelimited
                 * @function
                 * @param {!ByteBuffer|!ArrayBuffer|!Buffer|string} buffer Buffer to decode from
                 * @param {string=} enc Encoding if buffer is a string: hex, utf8 (not recommended), defaults to base64
                 * @return {ProtoBuf.Builder.Message} Decoded message or `null` if not enough bytes are available yet
                 * @throws {Error} If the message cannot be decoded or if required fields are missing. The later still
                 *  returns the decoded message with missing fields in the `decoded` property on the error.
                 * @expose
                 */
                Message.decodeDelimited = function(buffer, enc) {
                    if (typeof buffer === 'string')
                        buffer = ByteBuffer.wrap(buffer, enc ? enc : "base64");
                    buffer = ByteBuffer.isByteBuffer(buffer) ? buffer : ByteBuffer.wrap(buffer); // May throw
                    if (buffer.remaining() < 1)
                        return null;
                    var off = buffer.offset,
                        len = buffer.readVarint32();
                    if (buffer.remaining() < len) {
                        buffer.offset = off;
                        return null;
                    }
                    try {
                        var msg = T.decode(buffer.slice(buffer.offset, buffer.offset + len).LE());
                        buffer.offset += len;
                        return msg;
                    } catch (err) {
                        buffer.offset += len;
                        throw err;
                    }
                };

                /**
                 * Decodes the message from the specified base64 encoded string.
                 * @name ProtoBuf.Builder.Message.decode64
                 * @function
                 * @param {string} str String to decode from
                 * @return {!ProtoBuf.Builder.Message} Decoded message
                 * @throws {Error} If the message cannot be decoded or if required fields are missing. The later still
                 *  returns the decoded message with missing fields in the `decoded` property on the error.
                 * @expose
                 */
                Message.decode64 = function(str) {
                    return Message.decode(str, "base64");
                };

                /**
                 * Decodes the message from the specified hex encoded string.
                 * @name ProtoBuf.Builder.Message.decodeHex
                 * @function
                 * @param {string} str String to decode from
                 * @return {!ProtoBuf.Builder.Message} Decoded message
                 * @throws {Error} If the message cannot be decoded or if required fields are missing. The later still
                 *  returns the decoded message with missing fields in the `decoded` property on the error.
                 * @expose
                 */
                Message.decodeHex = function(str) {
                    return Message.decode(str, "hex");
                };

                /**
                 * Decodes the message from a JSON string.
                 * @name ProtoBuf.Builder.Message.decodeJSON
                 * @function
                 * @param {string} str String to decode from
                 * @return {!ProtoBuf.Builder.Message} Decoded message
                 * @throws {Error} If the message cannot be decoded or if required fields are
                 * missing.
                 * @expose
                 */
                Message.decodeJSON = function(str) {
                    return new Message(JSON.parse(str));
                };

                // Utility

                /**
                 * Returns a string representation of this Message.
                 * @name ProtoBuf.Builder.Message#toString
                 * @function
                 * @return {string} String representation as of ".Fully.Qualified.MessageName"
                 * @expose
                 */
                MessagePrototype.toString = function() {
                    return T.toString();
                };

                // Properties

                /**
                 * Message options.
                 * @name ProtoBuf.Builder.Message.$options
                 * @type {Object.<string,*>}
                 * @expose
                 */
                var $optionsS; // cc needs this

                /**
                 * Message options.
                 * @name ProtoBuf.Builder.Message#$options
                 * @type {Object.<string,*>}
                 * @expose
                 */
                var $options;

                /**
                 * Reflection type.
                 * @name ProtoBuf.Builder.Message.$type
                 * @type {!ProtoBuf.Reflect.Message}
                 * @expose
                 */
                var $typeS;

                /**
                 * Reflection type.
                 * @name ProtoBuf.Builder.Message#$type
                 * @type {!ProtoBuf.Reflect.Message}
                 * @expose
                 */
                var $type;

                if (Object.defineProperty)
                    Object.defineProperty(Message, '$options', { "value": T.buildOpt() }),
                    Object.defineProperty(MessagePrototype, "$options", { "value": Message["$options"] }),
                    Object.defineProperty(Message, "$type", { "value": T }),
                    Object.defineProperty(MessagePrototype, "$type", { "value": T });

                return Message;

            })(ProtoBuf, this);

            // Static enums and prototyped sub-messages / cached collections
            this._fields = [];
            this._fieldsById = {};
            this._fieldsByName = {};
            for (var i=0, k=this.children.length, child; i<k; i++) {
                child = this.children[i];
                if (child instanceof Enum || child instanceof Message || child instanceof Service) {
                    if (clazz.hasOwnProperty(child.name))
                        throw Error("Illegal reflect child of "+this.toString(true)+": "+child.toString(true)+" cannot override static property '"+child.name+"'");
                    clazz[child.name] = child.build();
                } else if (child instanceof Message.Field)
                    child.build(),
                    this._fields.push(child),
                    this._fieldsById[child.id] = child,
                    this._fieldsByName[child.name] = child;
                else if (!(child instanceof Message.OneOf) && !(child instanceof Extension)) // Not built
                    throw Error("Illegal reflect child of "+this.toString(true)+": "+this.children[i].toString(true));
            }

            return this.clazz = clazz;
        };

        /**
         * Encodes a runtime message's contents to the specified buffer.
         * @param {!ProtoBuf.Builder.Message} message Runtime message to encode
         * @param {ByteBuffer} buffer ByteBuffer to write to
         * @param {boolean=} noVerify Whether to not verify field values, defaults to `false`
         * @return {ByteBuffer} The ByteBuffer for chaining
         * @throws {Error} If required fields are missing or the message cannot be encoded for another reason
         * @expose
         */
        MessagePrototype.encode = function(message, buffer, noVerify) {
            var fieldMissing = null,
                field;
            for (var i=0, k=this._fields.length, val; i<k; ++i) {
                field = this._fields[i];
                val = message[field.name];
                if (field.required && val === null) {
                    if (fieldMissing === null)
                        fieldMissing = field;
                } else
                    field.encode(noVerify ? val : field.verifyValue(val), buffer);
            }
            if (fieldMissing !== null) {
                var err = Error("Missing at least one required field for "+this.toString(true)+": "+fieldMissing);
                err["encoded"] = buffer; // Still expose what we got
                throw(err);
            }
            return buffer;
        };

        /**
         * Calculates a runtime message's byte length.
         * @param {!ProtoBuf.Builder.Message} message Runtime message to encode
         * @returns {number} Byte length
         * @throws {Error} If required fields are missing or the message cannot be calculated for another reason
         * @expose
         */
        MessagePrototype.calculate = function(message) {
            for (var n=0, i=0, k=this._fields.length, field, val; i<k; ++i) {
                field = this._fields[i];
                val = message[field.name];
                if (field.required && val === null)
                   throw Error("Missing at least one required field for "+this.toString(true)+": "+field);
                else
                    n += field.calculate(val);
            }
            return n;
        };

        /**
         * Skips all data until the end of the specified group has been reached.
         * @param {number} expectedId Expected GROUPEND id
         * @param {!ByteBuffer} buf ByteBuffer
         * @returns {boolean} `true` if a value as been skipped, `false` if the end has been reached
         * @throws {Error} If it wasn't possible to find the end of the group (buffer overrun or end tag mismatch)
         * @inner
         */
        function skipTillGroupEnd(expectedId, buf) {
            var tag = buf.readVarint32(), // Throws on OOB
                wireType = tag & 0x07,
                id = tag >>> 3;
            switch (wireType) {
                case ProtoBuf.WIRE_TYPES.VARINT:
                    do tag = buf.readUint8();
                    while ((tag & 0x80) === 0x80);
                    break;
                case ProtoBuf.WIRE_TYPES.BITS64:
                    buf.offset += 8;
                    break;
                case ProtoBuf.WIRE_TYPES.LDELIM:
                    tag = buf.readVarint32(); // reads the varint
                    buf.offset += tag;        // skips n bytes
                    break;
                case ProtoBuf.WIRE_TYPES.STARTGROUP:
                    skipTillGroupEnd(id, buf);
                    break;
                case ProtoBuf.WIRE_TYPES.ENDGROUP:
                    if (id === expectedId)
                        return false;
                    else
                        throw Error("Illegal GROUPEND after unknown group: "+id+" ("+expectedId+" expected)");
                case ProtoBuf.WIRE_TYPES.BITS32:
                    buf.offset += 4;
                    break;
                default:
                    throw Error("Illegal wire type in unknown group "+expectedId+": "+wireType);
            }
            return true;
        }

        /**
         * Decodes an encoded message and returns the decoded message.
         * @param {ByteBuffer} buffer ByteBuffer to decode from
         * @param {number=} length Message length. Defaults to decode all the available data.
         * @param {number=} expectedGroupEndId Expected GROUPEND id if this is a legacy group
         * @return {ProtoBuf.Builder.Message} Decoded message
         * @throws {Error} If the message cannot be decoded
         * @expose
         */
        MessagePrototype.decode = function(buffer, length, expectedGroupEndId) {
            length = typeof length === 'number' ? length : -1;
            var start = buffer.offset,
                msg = new (this.clazz)(),
                tag, wireType, id, field;
            while (buffer.offset < start+length || (length === -1 && buffer.remaining() > 0)) {
                tag = buffer.readVarint32();
                wireType = tag & 0x07;
                id = tag >>> 3;
                if (wireType === ProtoBuf.WIRE_TYPES.ENDGROUP) {
                    if (id !== expectedGroupEndId)
                        throw Error("Illegal group end indicator for "+this.toString(true)+": "+id+" ("+(expectedGroupEndId ? expectedGroupEndId+" expected" : "not a group")+")");
                    break;
                }
                if (!(field = this._fieldsById[id])) {
                    // "messages created by your new code can be parsed by your old code: old binaries simply ignore the new field when parsing."
                    switch (wireType) {
                        case ProtoBuf.WIRE_TYPES.VARINT:
                            buffer.readVarint32();
                            break;
                        case ProtoBuf.WIRE_TYPES.BITS32:
                            buffer.offset += 4;
                            break;
                        case ProtoBuf.WIRE_TYPES.BITS64:
                            buffer.offset += 8;
                            break;
                        case ProtoBuf.WIRE_TYPES.LDELIM:
                            var len = buffer.readVarint32();
                            buffer.offset += len;
                            break;
                        case ProtoBuf.WIRE_TYPES.STARTGROUP:
                            while (skipTillGroupEnd(id, buffer)) {}
                            break;
                        default:
                            throw Error("Illegal wire type for unknown field "+id+" in "+this.toString(true)+"#decode: "+wireType);
                    }
                    continue;
                }
                if (field.repeated && !field.options["packed"]) {
                    msg[field.name].push(field.decode(wireType, buffer));
                } else if (field.map) {
                    var keyval = field.decode(wireType, buffer);
                    msg[field.name].set(keyval[0], keyval[1]);
                } else {
                    msg[field.name] = field.decode(wireType, buffer);
                    if (field.oneof) {
                        if (this[field.oneof.name] !== null)
                            this[this[field.oneof.name]] = null;
                        msg[field.oneof.name] = field.name;
                    }
                }
            }

            // Check if all required fields are present and set default values for optional fields that are not
            for (var i=0, k=this._fields.length; i<k; ++i) {
                field = this._fields[i];
                if (msg[field.name] === null)
                    if (field.required) {
                        var err = Error("Missing at least one required field for "+this.toString(true)+": "+field.name);
                        err["decoded"] = msg; // Still expose what we got
                        throw(err);
                    } else if (ProtoBuf.populateDefaults && field.defaultValue !== null)
                        msg[field.name] = field.defaultValue;
            }
            return msg;
        };

        /**
         * @alias ProtoBuf.Reflect.Message
         * @expose
         */
        Reflect.Message = Message;

        /**
         * Constructs a new Message Field.
         * @exports ProtoBuf.Reflect.Message.Field
         * @param {!ProtoBuf.Builder} builder Builder reference
         * @param {!ProtoBuf.Reflect.Message} message Message reference
         * @param {string} rule Rule, one of requried, optional, repeated
         * @param {string?} keytype Key data type, if any.
         * @param {string} type Data type, e.g. int32
         * @param {string} name Field name
         * @param {number} id Unique field id
         * @param {Object.<string,*>=} options Options
         * @param {!ProtoBuf.Reflect.Message.OneOf=} oneof Enclosing OneOf
         * @param {string?} syntax The syntax level of this definition (e.g., proto3)
         * @constructor
         * @extends ProtoBuf.Reflect.T
         */
        var Field = function(builder, message, rule, keytype, type, name, id, options, oneof, syntax) {
            T.call(this, builder, message, name);

            /**
             * @override
             */
            this.className = "Message.Field";

            /**
             * Message field required flag.
             * @type {boolean}
             * @expose
             */
            this.required = rule === "required";

            /**
             * Message field repeated flag.
             * @type {boolean}
             * @expose
             */
            this.repeated = rule === "repeated";

            /**
             * Message field map flag.
             * @type {boolean}
             * @expose
             */
            this.map = rule === "map";

            /**
             * Message field key type. Type reference string if unresolved, protobuf
             * type if resolved. Valid only if this.map === true, null otherwise.
             * @type {string|{name: string, wireType: number}|null}
             * @expose
             */
            this.keyType = keytype || null;

            /**
             * Message field type. Type reference string if unresolved, protobuf type if
             * resolved. In a map field, this is the value type.
             * @type {string|{name: string, wireType: number}}
             * @expose
             */
            this.type = type;

            /**
             * Resolved type reference inside the global namespace.
             * @type {ProtoBuf.Reflect.T|null}
             * @expose
             */
            this.resolvedType = null;

            /**
             * Unique message field id.
             * @type {number}
             * @expose
             */
            this.id = id;

            /**
             * Message field options.
             * @type {!Object.<string,*>}
             * @dict
             * @expose
             */
            this.options = options || {};

            /**
             * Default value.
             * @type {*}
             * @expose
             */
            this.defaultValue = null;

            /**
             * Enclosing OneOf.
             * @type {?ProtoBuf.Reflect.Message.OneOf}
             * @expose
             */
            this.oneof = oneof || null;

            /**
             * Syntax level of this definition (e.g., proto3).
             * @type {string}
             * @expose
             */
            this.syntax = syntax || 'proto2';

            /**
             * Original field name.
             * @type {string}
             * @expose
             */
            this.originalName = this.name; // Used to revert camelcase transformation on naming collisions

            /**
             * Element implementation. Created in build() after types are resolved.
             * @type {ProtoBuf.Element}
             * @expose
             */
            this.element = null;

            /**
             * Key element implementation, for map fields. Created in build() after
             * types are resolved.
             * @type {ProtoBuf.Element}
             * @expose
             */
            this.keyElement = null;

            // Convert field names to camel case notation if the override is set
            if (this.builder.options['convertFieldsToCamelCase'] && !(this instanceof Message.ExtensionField))
                this.name = ProtoBuf.Util.toCamelCase(this.name);
        };

        /**
         * @alias ProtoBuf.Reflect.Message.Field.prototype
         * @inner
         */
        var FieldPrototype = Field.prototype = Object.create(T.prototype);

        /**
         * Builds the field.
         * @override
         * @expose
         */
        FieldPrototype.build = function() {
            this.element = new Element(this.type, this.resolvedType, false, this.syntax);
            if (this.map)
                this.keyElement = new Element(this.keyType, undefined, true, this.syntax);

            this.defaultValue = typeof this.options['default'] !== 'undefined' ? this.verifyValue(this.options['default']) : null;

            // In proto3, fields do not have field presence, and every field is set to
            // its type's default value ("", 0, 0.0, or false).
            if (this.syntax === 'proto3' && !this.repeated && !this.map)
                this.defaultValue = this.element.defaultFieldValue(this.type);
        };

        /**
         * Checks if the given value can be set for this field.
         * @param {*} value Value to check
         * @param {boolean=} skipRepeated Whether to skip the repeated value check or not. Defaults to false.
         * @return {*} Verified, maybe adjusted, value
         * @throws {Error} If the value cannot be set for this field
         * @expose
         */
        FieldPrototype.verifyValue = function(value, skipRepeated) {
            skipRepeated = skipRepeated || false;
            var fail = function(val, msg) {
                throw Error("Illegal value for "+this.toString(true)+" of type "+this.type.name+": "+val+" ("+msg+")");
            }.bind(this);
            if (value === null) { // NULL values for optional fields
                if (this.required)
                    fail(typeof value, "required");
                if (this.syntax === 'proto3' && this.type !== ProtoBuf.TYPES["message"])
                    fail(typeof value, "proto3 field without field presence cannot be null");
                return null;
            }
            var i;
            if (this.repeated && !skipRepeated) { // Repeated values as arrays
                if (!Array.isArray(value))
                    value = [value];
                var res = [];
                for (i=0; i<value.length; i++)
                    res.push(this.element.verifyValue(value[i]));
                return res;
            }
            if (this.map && !skipRepeated) { // Map values as objects
                if (!(value instanceof ProtoBuf.Map)) {
                    // If not already a Map, attempt to convert.
                    if (!(value instanceof Object)) {
                        fail(typeof value,
                             "expected ProtoBuf.Map or raw object for map field");
                    }
                    return new ProtoBuf.Map(this, value);
                } else {
                    return value;
                }
            }
            // All non-repeated fields expect no array
            if (!this.repeated && Array.isArray(value))
                fail(typeof value, "no array expected");

            return this.element.verifyValue(value);
        };

        /**
         * Determines whether the field will have a presence on the wire given its
         * value.
         * @param {*} value Verified field value
         * @return {boolean} Whether the field will be present on the wire
         */
        FieldPrototype.hasWirePresence = function(value) {
            if (this.syntax !== 'proto3') {
                return (value !== null);
            } else {
                switch (this.type) {
                    case ProtoBuf.TYPES["int32"]:
                    case ProtoBuf.TYPES["sint32"]:
                    case ProtoBuf.TYPES["sfixed32"]:
                    case ProtoBuf.TYPES["uint32"]:
                    case ProtoBuf.TYPES["fixed32"]:
                        return value !== 0;

                    case ProtoBuf.TYPES["int64"]:
                    case ProtoBuf.TYPES["sint64"]:
                    case ProtoBuf.TYPES["sfixed64"]:
                    case ProtoBuf.TYPES["uint64"]:
                    case ProtoBuf.TYPES["fixed64"]:
                        return value.low !== 0 || value.high !== 0;

                    case ProtoBuf.TYPES["bool"]:
                        return value;

                    case ProtoBuf.TYPES["float"]:
                    case ProtoBuf.TYPES["double"]:
                        return value !== 0.0;

                    case ProtoBuf.TYPES["string"]:
                        return value.length > 0;

                    case ProtoBuf.TYPES["bytes"]:
                        return value.remaining() > 0;

                    case ProtoBuf.TYPES["enum"]:
                        return value !== 0;

                    case ProtoBuf.TYPES["message"]:
                        return value !== null;
                    default:
                        return true;
                }
            }
        };

        /**
         * Encodes the specified field value to the specified buffer.
         * @param {*} value Verified field value
         * @param {ByteBuffer} buffer ByteBuffer to encode to
         * @return {ByteBuffer} The ByteBuffer for chaining
         * @throws {Error} If the field cannot be encoded
         * @expose
         */
        FieldPrototype.encode = function(value, buffer) {
            if (this.type === null || typeof this.type !== 'object')
                throw Error("[INTERNAL] Unresolved type in "+this.toString(true)+": "+this.type);
            if (value === null || (this.repeated && value.length == 0))
                return buffer; // Optional omitted
            try {
                if (this.repeated) {
                    var i;
                    // "Only repeated fields of primitive numeric types (types which use the varint, 32-bit, or 64-bit wire
                    // types) can be declared 'packed'."
                    if (this.options["packed"] && ProtoBuf.PACKABLE_WIRE_TYPES.indexOf(this.type.wireType) >= 0) {
                        // "All of the elements of the field are packed into a single key-value pair with wire type 2
                        // (length-delimited). Each element is encoded the same way it would be normally, except without a
                        // tag preceding it."
                        buffer.writeVarint32((this.id << 3) | ProtoBuf.WIRE_TYPES.LDELIM);
                        buffer.ensureCapacity(buffer.offset += 1); // We do not know the length yet, so let's assume a varint of length 1
                        var start = buffer.offset; // Remember where the contents begin
                        for (i=0; i<value.length; i++)
                            this.element.encodeValue(this.id, value[i], buffer);
                        var len = buffer.offset-start,
                            varintLen = ByteBuffer.calculateVarint32(len);
                        if (varintLen > 1) { // We need to move the contents
                            var contents = buffer.slice(start, buffer.offset);
                            start += varintLen-1;
                            buffer.offset = start;
                            buffer.append(contents);
                        }
                        buffer.writeVarint32(len, start-varintLen);
                    } else {
                        // "If your message definition has repeated elements (without the [packed=true] option), the encoded
                        // message has zero or more key-value pairs with the same tag number"
                        for (i=0; i<value.length; i++)
                            buffer.writeVarint32((this.id << 3) | this.type.wireType),
                            this.element.encodeValue(this.id, value[i], buffer);
                    }
                } else if (this.map) {
                    // Write out each map entry as a submessage.
                    value.forEach(function(val, key, m) {
                        // Compute the length of the submessage (key, val) pair.
                        var length =
                            ByteBuffer.calculateVarint32((1 << 3) | this.keyType.wireType) +
                            this.keyElement.calculateLength(1, key) +
                            ByteBuffer.calculateVarint32((2 << 3) | this.type.wireType) +
                            this.element.calculateLength(2, val);

                        // Submessage with wire type of length-delimited.
                        buffer.writeVarint32((this.id << 3) | ProtoBuf.WIRE_TYPES.LDELIM);
                        buffer.writeVarint32(length);

                        // Write out the key and val.
                        buffer.writeVarint32((1 << 3) | this.keyType.wireType);
                        this.keyElement.encodeValue(1, key, buffer);
                        buffer.writeVarint32((2 << 3) | this.type.wireType);
                        this.element.encodeValue(2, val, buffer);
                    }, this);
                } else {
                    if (this.hasWirePresence(value)) {
                        buffer.writeVarint32((this.id << 3) | this.type.wireType);
                        this.element.encodeValue(this.id, value, buffer);
                    }
                }
            } catch (e) {
                throw Error("Illegal value for "+this.toString(true)+": "+value+" ("+e+")");
            }
            return buffer;
        };

        /**
         * Calculates the length of this field's value on the network level.
         * @param {*} value Field value
         * @returns {number} Byte length
         * @expose
         */
        FieldPrototype.calculate = function(value) {
            value = this.verifyValue(value); // May throw
            if (this.type === null || typeof this.type !== 'object')
                throw Error("[INTERNAL] Unresolved type in "+this.toString(true)+": "+this.type);
            if (value === null || (this.repeated && value.length == 0))
                return 0; // Optional omitted
            var n = 0;
            try {
                if (this.repeated) {
                    var i, ni;
                    if (this.options["packed"] && ProtoBuf.PACKABLE_WIRE_TYPES.indexOf(this.type.wireType) >= 0) {
                        n += ByteBuffer.calculateVarint32((this.id << 3) | ProtoBuf.WIRE_TYPES.LDELIM);
                        ni = 0;
                        for (i=0; i<value.length; i++)
                            ni += this.element.calculateLength(this.id, value[i]);
                        n += ByteBuffer.calculateVarint32(ni);
                        n += ni;
                    } else {
                        for (i=0; i<value.length; i++)
                            n += ByteBuffer.calculateVarint32((this.id << 3) | this.type.wireType),
                            n += this.element.calculateLength(this.id, value[i]);
                    }
                } else if (this.map) {
                    // Each map entry becomes a submessage.
                    value.forEach(function(val, key, m) {
                        // Compute the length of the submessage (key, val) pair.
                        var length =
                            ByteBuffer.calculateVarint32((1 << 3) | this.keyType.wireType) +
                            this.keyElement.calculateLength(1, key) +
                            ByteBuffer.calculateVarint32((2 << 3) | this.type.wireType) +
                            this.element.calculateLength(2, val);

                        n += ByteBuffer.calculateVarint32((this.id << 3) | ProtoBuf.WIRE_TYPES.LDELIM);
                        n += ByteBuffer.calculateVarint32(length);
                        n += length;
                    }, this);
                } else {
                    if (this.hasWirePresence(value)) {
                        n += ByteBuffer.calculateVarint32((this.id << 3) | this.type.wireType);
                        n += this.element.calculateLength(this.id, value);
                    }
                }
            } catch (e) {
                throw Error("Illegal value for "+this.toString(true)+": "+value+" ("+e+")");
            }
            return n;
        };

        /**
         * Decode the field value from the specified buffer.
         * @param {number} wireType Leading wire type
         * @param {ByteBuffer} buffer ByteBuffer to decode from
         * @param {boolean=} skipRepeated Whether to skip the repeated check or not. Defaults to false.
         * @return {*} Decoded value: array for packed repeated fields, [key, value] for
         *             map fields, or an individual value otherwise.
         * @throws {Error} If the field cannot be decoded
         * @expose
         */
        FieldPrototype.decode = function(wireType, buffer, skipRepeated) {
            var value, nBytes;

            // We expect wireType to match the underlying type's wireType unless we see
            // a packed repeated field, or unless this is a map field.
            var wireTypeOK =
                (!this.map && wireType == this.type.wireType) ||
                (!skipRepeated && this.repeated && this.options["packed"] &&
                 wireType == ProtoBuf.WIRE_TYPES.LDELIM) ||
                (this.map && wireType == ProtoBuf.WIRE_TYPES.LDELIM);
            if (!wireTypeOK)
                throw Error("Illegal wire type for field "+this.toString(true)+": "+wireType+" ("+this.type.wireType+" expected)");

            // Handle packed repeated fields.
            if (wireType == ProtoBuf.WIRE_TYPES.LDELIM && this.repeated && this.options["packed"] && ProtoBuf.PACKABLE_WIRE_TYPES.indexOf(this.type.wireType) >= 0) {
                if (!skipRepeated) {
                    nBytes = buffer.readVarint32();
                    nBytes = buffer.offset + nBytes; // Limit
                    var values = [];
                    while (buffer.offset < nBytes)
                        values.push(this.decode(this.type.wireType, buffer, true));
                    return values;
                }
                // Read the next value otherwise...
            }

            // Handle maps.
            if (this.map) {
                // Read one (key, value) submessage, and return [key, value]
                var key = this.keyElement.defaultFieldValue(this.keyType);
                value = this.element.defaultFieldValue(this.type);

                // Read the length
                nBytes = buffer.readVarint32();
                if (buffer.remaining() < nBytes)
                    throw Error("Illegal number of bytes for "+this.toString(true)+": "+nBytes+" required but got only "+buffer.remaining());

                // Get a sub-buffer of this key/value submessage
                var msgbuf = buffer.clone();
                msgbuf.limit = msgbuf.offset + nBytes;
                buffer.offset += nBytes;

                while (msgbuf.remaining() > 0) {
                    var tag = msgbuf.readVarint32();
                    wireType = tag & 0x07;
                    var id = tag >>> 3;
                    if (id === 1) {
                        key = this.keyElement.decode(msgbuf, wireType, id);
                    } else if (id === 2) {
                        value = this.element.decode(msgbuf, wireType, id);
                    } else {
                        throw Error("Unexpected tag in map field key/value submessage");
                    }
                }

                return [key, value];
            }

            // Handle singular and non-packed repeated field values.
            return this.element.decode(buffer, wireType, this.id);
        };

        /**
         * @alias ProtoBuf.Reflect.Message.Field
         * @expose
         */
        Reflect.Message.Field = Field;

        /**
         * Constructs a new Message ExtensionField.
         * @exports ProtoBuf.Reflect.Message.ExtensionField
         * @param {!ProtoBuf.Builder} builder Builder reference
         * @param {!ProtoBuf.Reflect.Message} message Message reference
         * @param {string} rule Rule, one of requried, optional, repeated
         * @param {string} type Data type, e.g. int32
         * @param {string} name Field name
         * @param {number} id Unique field id
         * @param {Object.<string,*>=} options Options
         * @constructor
         * @extends ProtoBuf.Reflect.Message.Field
         */
        var ExtensionField = function(builder, message, rule, type, name, id, options) {
            Field.call(this, builder, message, rule, /* keytype = */ null, type, name, id, options);

            /**
             * Extension reference.
             * @type {!ProtoBuf.Reflect.Extension}
             * @expose
             */
            this.extension;
        };

        // Extends Field
        ExtensionField.prototype = Object.create(Field.prototype);

        /**
         * @alias ProtoBuf.Reflect.Message.ExtensionField
         * @expose
         */
        Reflect.Message.ExtensionField = ExtensionField;

        /**
         * Constructs a new Message OneOf.
         * @exports ProtoBuf.Reflect.Message.OneOf
         * @param {!ProtoBuf.Builder} builder Builder reference
         * @param {!ProtoBuf.Reflect.Message} message Message reference
         * @param {string} name OneOf name
         * @constructor
         * @extends ProtoBuf.Reflect.T
         */
        var OneOf = function(builder, message, name) {
            T.call(this, builder, message, name);

            /**
             * Enclosed fields.
             * @type {!Array.<!ProtoBuf.Reflect.Message.Field>}
             * @expose
             */
            this.fields = [];
        };

        /**
         * @alias ProtoBuf.Reflect.Message.OneOf
         * @expose
         */
        Reflect.Message.OneOf = OneOf;

        /**
         * Constructs a new Enum.
         * @exports ProtoBuf.Reflect.Enum
         * @param {!ProtoBuf.Builder} builder Builder reference
         * @param {!ProtoBuf.Reflect.T} parent Parent Reflect object
         * @param {string} name Enum name
         * @param {Object.<string,*>=} options Enum options
         * @param {string?} syntax The syntax level (e.g., proto3)
         * @constructor
         * @extends ProtoBuf.Reflect.Namespace
         */
        var Enum = function(builder, parent, name, options, syntax) {
            Namespace.call(this, builder, parent, name, options, syntax);

            /**
             * @override
             */
            this.className = "Enum";

            /**
             * Runtime enum object.
             * @type {Object.<string,number>|null}
             * @expose
             */
            this.object = null;
        };

        /**
         * @alias ProtoBuf.Reflect.Enum.prototype
         * @inner
         */
        var EnumPrototype = Enum.prototype = Object.create(Namespace.prototype);

        /**
         * Builds this enum and returns the runtime counterpart.
         * @return {Object<string,*>}
         * @expose
         */
        EnumPrototype.build = function() {
            var enm = {},
                values = this.getChildren(Enum.Value);
            for (var i=0, k=values.length; i<k; ++i)
                enm[values[i]['name']] = values[i]['id'];
            if (Object.defineProperty)
                Object.defineProperty(enm, '$options', { "value": this.buildOpt() });
            return this.object = enm;
        };

        /**
         * @alias ProtoBuf.Reflect.Enum
         * @expose
         */
        Reflect.Enum = Enum;

        /**
         * Constructs a new Enum Value.
         * @exports ProtoBuf.Reflect.Enum.Value
         * @param {!ProtoBuf.Builder} builder Builder reference
         * @param {!ProtoBuf.Reflect.Enum} enm Enum reference
         * @param {string} name Field name
         * @param {number} id Unique field id
         * @constructor
         * @extends ProtoBuf.Reflect.T
         */
        var Value = function(builder, enm, name, id) {
            T.call(this, builder, enm, name);

            /**
             * @override
             */
            this.className = "Enum.Value";

            /**
             * Unique enum value id.
             * @type {number}
             * @expose
             */
            this.id = id;
        };

        // Extends T
        Value.prototype = Object.create(T.prototype);

        /**
         * @alias ProtoBuf.Reflect.Enum.Value
         * @expose
         */
        Reflect.Enum.Value = Value;

        /**
         * An extension (field).
         * @exports ProtoBuf.Reflect.Extension
         * @constructor
         * @param {!ProtoBuf.Builder} builder Builder reference
         * @param {!ProtoBuf.Reflect.T} parent Parent object
         * @param {string} name Object name
         * @param {!ProtoBuf.Reflect.Message.Field} field Extension field
         */
        var Extension = function(builder, parent, name, field) {
            T.call(this, builder, parent, name);

            /**
             * Extended message field.
             * @type {!ProtoBuf.Reflect.Message.Field}
             * @expose
             */
            this.field = field;
        };

        // Extends T
        Extension.prototype = Object.create(T.prototype);

        /**
         * @alias ProtoBuf.Reflect.Extension
         * @expose
         */
        Reflect.Extension = Extension;

        /**
         * Constructs a new Service.
         * @exports ProtoBuf.Reflect.Service
         * @param {!ProtoBuf.Builder} builder Builder reference
         * @param {!ProtoBuf.Reflect.Namespace} root Root
         * @param {string} name Service name
         * @param {Object.<string,*>=} options Options
         * @constructor
         * @extends ProtoBuf.Reflect.Namespace
         */
        var Service = function(builder, root, name, options) {
            Namespace.call(this, builder, root, name, options);

            /**
             * @override
             */
            this.className = "Service";

            /**
             * Built runtime service class.
             * @type {?function(new:ProtoBuf.Builder.Service)}
             */
            this.clazz = null;
        };

        /**
         * @alias ProtoBuf.Reflect.Service.prototype
         * @inner
         */
        var ServicePrototype = Service.prototype = Object.create(Namespace.prototype);

        /**
         * Builds the service and returns the runtime counterpart, which is a fully functional class.
         * @see ProtoBuf.Builder.Service
         * @param {boolean=} rebuild Whether to rebuild or not
         * @return {Function} Service class
         * @throws {Error} If the message cannot be built
         * @expose
         */
        ServicePrototype.build = function(rebuild) {
            if (this.clazz && !rebuild)
                return this.clazz;

            // Create the runtime Service class in its own scope
            return this.clazz = (function(ProtoBuf, T) {

                /**
                 * Constructs a new runtime Service.
                 * @name ProtoBuf.Builder.Service
                 * @param {function(string, ProtoBuf.Builder.Message, function(Error, ProtoBuf.Builder.Message=))=} rpcImpl RPC implementation receiving the method name and the message
                 * @class Barebone of all runtime services.
                 * @constructor
                 * @throws {Error} If the service cannot be created
                 */
                var Service = function(rpcImpl) {
                    ProtoBuf.Builder.Service.call(this);

                    /**
                     * Service implementation.
                     * @name ProtoBuf.Builder.Service#rpcImpl
                     * @type {!function(string, ProtoBuf.Builder.Message, function(Error, ProtoBuf.Builder.Message=))}
                     * @expose
                     */
                    this.rpcImpl = rpcImpl || function(name, msg, callback) {
                        // This is what a user has to implement: A function receiving the method name, the actual message to
                        // send (type checked) and the callback that's either provided with the error as its first
                        // argument or null and the actual response message.
                        setTimeout(callback.bind(this, Error("Not implemented, see: https://github.com/dcodeIO/ProtoBuf.js/wiki/Services")), 0); // Must be async!
                    };
                };

                /**
                 * @alias ProtoBuf.Builder.Service.prototype
                 * @inner
                 */
                var ServicePrototype = Service.prototype = Object.create(ProtoBuf.Builder.Service.prototype);

                /**
                 * Asynchronously performs an RPC call using the given RPC implementation.
                 * @name ProtoBuf.Builder.Service.[Method]
                 * @function
                 * @param {!function(string, ProtoBuf.Builder.Message, function(Error, ProtoBuf.Builder.Message=))} rpcImpl RPC implementation
                 * @param {ProtoBuf.Builder.Message} req Request
                 * @param {function(Error, (ProtoBuf.Builder.Message|ByteBuffer|Buffer|string)=)} callback Callback receiving
                 *  the error if any and the response either as a pre-parsed message or as its raw bytes
                 * @abstract
                 */

                /**
                 * Asynchronously performs an RPC call using the instance's RPC implementation.
                 * @name ProtoBuf.Builder.Service#[Method]
                 * @function
                 * @param {ProtoBuf.Builder.Message} req Request
                 * @param {function(Error, (ProtoBuf.Builder.Message|ByteBuffer|Buffer|string)=)} callback Callback receiving
                 *  the error if any and the response either as a pre-parsed message or as its raw bytes
                 * @abstract
                 */

                var rpc = T.getChildren(ProtoBuf.Reflect.Service.RPCMethod);
                for (var i=0; i<rpc.length; i++) {
                    (function(method) {

                        // service#Method(message, callback)
                        ServicePrototype[method.name] = function(req, callback) {
                            try {
                                try {
                                    // If given as a buffer, decode the request. Will throw a TypeError if not a valid buffer.
                                    req = method.resolvedRequestType.clazz.decode(ByteBuffer.wrap(req));
                                } catch (err) {
                                    if (!(err instanceof TypeError))
                                        throw err;
                                }
                                if (!req || !(req instanceof method.resolvedRequestType.clazz)) {
                                    setTimeout(callback.bind(this, Error("Illegal request type provided to service method "+T.name+"#"+method.name)), 0);
                                    return;
                                }
                                this.rpcImpl(method.fqn(), req, function(err, res) { // Assumes that this is properly async
                                    if (err) {
                                        callback(err);
                                        return;
                                    }
                                    try { res = method.resolvedResponseType.clazz.decode(res); } catch (notABuffer) {}
                                    if (!res || !(res instanceof method.resolvedResponseType.clazz)) {
                                        callback(Error("Illegal response type received in service method "+ T.name+"#"+method.name));
                                        return;
                                    }
                                    callback(null, res);
                                });
                            } catch (err) {
                                setTimeout(callback.bind(this, err), 0);
                            }
                        };

                        // Service.Method(rpcImpl, message, callback)
                        Service[method.name] = function(rpcImpl, req, callback) {
                            new Service(rpcImpl)[method.name](req, callback);
                        };

                        if (Object.defineProperty)
                            Object.defineProperty(Service[method.name], "$options", { "value": method.buildOpt() }),
                            Object.defineProperty(ServicePrototype[method.name], "$options", { "value": Service[method.name]["$options"] });
                    })(rpc[i]);
                }

                // Properties

                /**
                 * Service options.
                 * @name ProtoBuf.Builder.Service.$options
                 * @type {Object.<string,*>}
                 * @expose
                 */
                var $optionsS; // cc needs this

                /**
                 * Service options.
                 * @name ProtoBuf.Builder.Service#$options
                 * @type {Object.<string,*>}
                 * @expose
                 */
                var $options;

                /**
                 * Reflection type.
                 * @name ProtoBuf.Builder.Service.$type
                 * @type {!ProtoBuf.Reflect.Service}
                 * @expose
                 */
                var $typeS;

                /**
                 * Reflection type.
                 * @name ProtoBuf.Builder.Service#$type
                 * @type {!ProtoBuf.Reflect.Service}
                 * @expose
                 */
                var $type;

                if (Object.defineProperty)
                    Object.defineProperty(Service, "$options", { "value": T.buildOpt() }),
                    Object.defineProperty(ServicePrototype, "$options", { "value": Service["$options"] }),
                    Object.defineProperty(Service, "$type", { "value": T }),
                    Object.defineProperty(ServicePrototype, "$type", { "value": T });

                return Service;

            })(ProtoBuf, this);
        };

        /**
         * @alias ProtoBuf.Reflect.Service
         * @expose
         */
        Reflect.Service = Service;

        /**
         * Abstract service method.
         * @exports ProtoBuf.Reflect.Service.Method
         * @param {!ProtoBuf.Builder} builder Builder reference
         * @param {!ProtoBuf.Reflect.Service} svc Service
         * @param {string} name Method name
         * @param {Object.<string,*>=} options Options
         * @constructor
         * @extends ProtoBuf.Reflect.T
         */
        var Method = function(builder, svc, name, options) {
            T.call(this, builder, svc, name);

            /**
             * @override
             */
            this.className = "Service.Method";

            /**
             * Options.
             * @type {Object.<string, *>}
             * @expose
             */
            this.options = options || {};
        };

        /**
         * @alias ProtoBuf.Reflect.Service.Method.prototype
         * @inner
         */
        var MethodPrototype = Method.prototype = Object.create(T.prototype);

        /**
         * Builds the method's '$options' property.
         * @name ProtoBuf.Reflect.Service.Method#buildOpt
         * @function
         * @return {Object.<string,*>}
         */
        MethodPrototype.buildOpt = NamespacePrototype.buildOpt;

        /**
         * @alias ProtoBuf.Reflect.Service.Method
         * @expose
         */
        Reflect.Service.Method = Method;

        /**
         * RPC service method.
         * @exports ProtoBuf.Reflect.Service.RPCMethod
         * @param {!ProtoBuf.Builder} builder Builder reference
         * @param {!ProtoBuf.Reflect.Service} svc Service
         * @param {string} name Method name
         * @param {string} request Request message name
         * @param {string} response Response message name
         * @param {boolean} request_stream Whether requests are streamed
         * @param {boolean} response_stream Whether responses are streamed
         * @param {Object.<string,*>=} options Options
         * @constructor
         * @extends ProtoBuf.Reflect.Service.Method
         */
        var RPCMethod = function(builder, svc, name, request, response, request_stream, response_stream, options) {
            Method.call(this, builder, svc, name, options);

            /**
             * @override
             */
            this.className = "Service.RPCMethod";

            /**
             * Request message name.
             * @type {string}
             * @expose
             */
            this.requestName = request;

            /**
             * Response message name.
             * @type {string}
             * @expose
             */
            this.responseName = response;

            /**
             * Whether requests are streamed
             * @type {bool}
             * @expose
             */
            this.requestStream = request_stream;

            /**
             * Whether responses are streamed
             * @type {bool}
             * @expose
             */
            this.responseStream = response_stream;

            /**
             * Resolved request message type.
             * @type {ProtoBuf.Reflect.Message}
             * @expose
             */
            this.resolvedRequestType = null;

            /**
             * Resolved response message type.
             * @type {ProtoBuf.Reflect.Message}
             * @expose
             */
            this.resolvedResponseType = null;
        };

        // Extends Method
        RPCMethod.prototype = Object.create(Method.prototype);

        /**
         * @alias ProtoBuf.Reflect.Service.RPCMethod
         * @expose
         */
        Reflect.Service.RPCMethod = RPCMethod;

        return Reflect;

    })(ProtoBuf);

    /**
     * @alias ProtoBuf.Builder
     * @expose
     */
    ProtoBuf.Builder = (function(ProtoBuf, Lang, Reflect) {
        "use strict";

        /**
         * Helper for builder: propagate a top-level syntax annotation (e.g.,
         * 'proto3') down to all message and enum JSON descriptions.
         * @param {Object} msg The top-level JSON object
         */
        function propagateSyntax(syntax, msg) {
          msg['syntax'] = syntax;
          if (msg['messages']) {
              msg['messages'].forEach(function(msg) {
                  propagateSyntax(syntax, msg);
              });
          }
          if (msg['enums']) {
              msg['enums'].forEach(function(en) {
                  propagateSyntax(syntax, en);
              });
          }
        }

        /**
         * Constructs a new Builder.
         * @exports ProtoBuf.Builder
         * @class Provides the functionality to build protocol messages.
         * @param {Object.<string,*>=} options Options
         * @constructor
         */
        var Builder = function(options) {

            /**
             * Namespace.
             * @type {ProtoBuf.Reflect.Namespace}
             * @expose
             */
            this.ns = new Reflect.Namespace(this, null, ""); // Global namespace

            /**
             * Namespace pointer.
             * @type {ProtoBuf.Reflect.T}
             * @expose
             */
            this.ptr = this.ns;

            /**
             * Resolved flag.
             * @type {boolean}
             * @expose
             */
            this.resolved = false;

            /**
             * The current building result.
             * @type {Object.<string,ProtoBuf.Builder.Message|Object>|null}
             * @expose
             */
            this.result = null;

            /**
             * Imported files.
             * @type {Array.<string>}
             * @expose
             */
            this.files = {};

            /**
             * Import root override.
             * @type {?string}
             * @expose
             */
            this.importRoot = null;

            /**
             * Options.
             * @type {!Object.<string, *>}
             * @expose
             */
            this.options = options || {};
        };

        /**
         * @alias ProtoBuf.Builder.prototype
         * @inner
         */
        var BuilderPrototype = Builder.prototype;

        /**
         * Resets the pointer to the root namespace.
         * @expose
         */
        BuilderPrototype.reset = function() {
            this.ptr = this.ns;
        };

        /**
         * Defines a package on top of the current pointer position and places the pointer on it.
         * @param {string} pkg
         * @return {ProtoBuf.Builder} this
         * @throws {Error} If the package name is invalid
         * @expose
         */
        BuilderPrototype.define = function(pkg) {
            if (typeof pkg !== 'string' || !Lang.TYPEREF.test(pkg))
                throw Error("Illegal package: "+pkg);
            var part = pkg.split("."), i, ns;
            for (i=0; i<part.length; i++) // To be absolutely sure
                if (!Lang.NAME.test(part[i]))
                    throw Error("Illegal package: "+part[i]);
            for (i=0; i<part.length; i++) {
                ns = this.ptr.getChild(part[i]);
                if (ns === null) // Keep existing
                    this.ptr.addChild(ns = new Reflect.Namespace(this, this.ptr, part[i]));
                this.ptr = ns;
            }
            return this;
        };

        /**
         * Tests if a definition is a valid message definition.
         * @param {Object.<string,*>} def Definition
         * @return {boolean} true if valid, else false
         * @expose
         */
        Builder.isValidMessage = function(def) {
            // Messages require a string name
            if (typeof def["name"] !== 'string' || !Lang.NAME.test(def["name"]))
                return false;
            // Messages must not contain values (that'd be an enum) or methods (that'd be a service)
            if (typeof def["values"] !== 'undefined' || typeof def["rpc"] !== 'undefined')
                return false;
            // Fields, enums and messages are arrays if provided
            var i;
            if (typeof def["fields"] !== 'undefined') {
                if (!Array.isArray(def["fields"]))
                    return false;
                var ids = [], id; // IDs must be unique
                for (i=0; i<def["fields"].length; i++) {
                    if (!Builder.isValidMessageField(def["fields"][i]))
                        return false;
                    id = parseInt(def["fields"][i]["id"], 10);
                    if (ids.indexOf(id) >= 0)
                        return false;
                    ids.push(id);
                }
                ids = null;
            }
            if (typeof def["enums"] !== 'undefined') {
                if (!Array.isArray(def["enums"]))
                    return false;
                for (i=0; i<def["enums"].length; i++)
                    if (!Builder.isValidEnum(def["enums"][i]))
                        return false;
            }
            if (typeof def["messages"] !== 'undefined') {
                if (!Array.isArray(def["messages"]))
                    return false;
                for (i=0; i<def["messages"].length; i++)
                    if (!Builder.isValidMessage(def["messages"][i]) && !Builder.isValidExtend(def["messages"][i]))
                        return false;
            }
            if (typeof def["extensions"] !== 'undefined')
                if (!Array.isArray(def["extensions"]) || def["extensions"].length !== 2 || typeof def["extensions"][0] !== 'number' || typeof def["extensions"][1] !== 'number')
                    return false;

            if (def["syntax"] === 'proto3') {
                for (i=0; i<def["fields"].length; i++) {
                    var field = def["fields"][i];
                    // proto3 messages cannot contain required fields.
                    if (field["rule"] === "required")
                        return false;
                    // proto3 message fields cannot contain default values.
                    if (field["default"])
                        return false;
                    if (field["options"]) {
                        var optionKeys = Object.keys(field["options"]);
                        for (var j=0; j<optionKeys.length; j++) {
                            if (optionKeys[j] === "default") {
                                return false;
                            }
                        }
                    }
                }
                // proto3 messages cannot contain extensions.
                if (def["extensions"])
                    return false;
            }
            return true;
        };

        /**
         * Tests if a definition is a valid message field definition.
         * @param {Object} def Definition
         * @return {boolean} true if valid, else false
         * @expose
         */
        Builder.isValidMessageField = function(def) {
            // Message fields require a string rule, name and type and an id
            if (typeof def["rule"] !== 'string' || typeof def["name"] !== 'string' || typeof def["type"] !== 'string' || typeof def["id"] === 'undefined')
                return false;
            if (!Lang.RULE.test(def["rule"]) || !Lang.NAME.test(def["name"]) || !Lang.TYPEREF.test(def["type"]) || !Lang.ID.test(""+def["id"]))
                return false;
            if (typeof def["options"] !== 'undefined') {
                // Options are objects
                if (typeof def["options"] !== 'object')
                    return false;
                // Options are <string,string|number|boolean>
                var keys = Object.keys(def["options"]);
                for (var i=0, key; i<keys.length; i++)
                    if (typeof (key = keys[i]) !== 'string' || (typeof def["options"][key] !== 'string' && typeof def["options"][key] !== 'number' && typeof def["options"][key] !== 'boolean'))
                        return false;
            }
            return true;
        };

        /**
         * Tests if a definition is a valid enum definition.
         * @param {Object} def Definition
         * @return {boolean} true if valid, else false
         * @expose
         */
        Builder.isValidEnum = function(def) {
            // Enums require a string name
            if (typeof def["name"] !== 'string' || !Lang.NAME.test(def["name"]))
                return false;
            // Enums require at least one value
            if (typeof def["values"] === 'undefined' || !Array.isArray(def["values"]) || def["values"].length == 0)
                return false;
            for (var i=0; i<def["values"].length; i++) {
                // Values are objects
                if (typeof def["values"][i] != "object")
                    return false;
                // Values require a string name and an id
                if (typeof def["values"][i]["name"] !== 'string' || typeof def["values"][i]["id"] === 'undefined')
                    return false;
                if (!Lang.NAME.test(def["values"][i]["name"]) || !Lang.NEGID.test(""+def["values"][i]["id"]))
                    return false;
            }
            // If this is a proto3 enum, the default (first) value must be 0.
            if (def["syntax"] === 'proto3') {
                if (def["values"][0]["id"] !== 0) {
                    return false;
                }
            }
            // It's not important if there are other fields because ["values"] is already unique
            return true;
        };

        /**
         * Creates ths specified protocol types at the current pointer position.
         * @param {Array.<Object.<string,*>>} defs Messages, enums or services to create
         * @return {ProtoBuf.Builder} this
         * @throws {Error} If a message definition is invalid
         * @expose
         */
        BuilderPrototype.create = function(defs) {
            if (!defs)
                return this; // Nothing to create
            if (!Array.isArray(defs))
                defs = [defs];
            else {
                if (defs.length === 0)
                    return this;
                defs = defs.slice();
            }

            // It's quite hard to keep track of scopes and memory here, so let's do this iteratively.
            var stack = [];
            stack.push(defs); // One level [a, b, c]
            while (stack.length > 0) {
                defs = stack.pop();
                if (Array.isArray(defs)) { // Stack always contains entire namespaces
                    while (defs.length > 0) {
                        var def = defs.shift(); // Namespace always contains an array of messages, enums and services
                        if (Builder.isValidMessage(def)) {
                            var obj = new Reflect.Message(this, this.ptr, def["name"], def["options"], def["isGroup"], def["syntax"]);
                            // Create OneOfs
                            var oneofs = {};
                            if (def["oneofs"]) {
                                var keys = Object.keys(def["oneofs"]);
                                for (var i=0, k=keys.length; i<k; ++i)
                                    obj.addChild(oneofs[keys[i]] = new Reflect.Message.OneOf(this, obj, keys[i]));
                            }
                            // Create fields
                            if (def["fields"] && def["fields"].length > 0) {
                                for (i=0, k=def["fields"].length; i<k; ++i) { // i:k=Fields
                                    var fld = def['fields'][i];
                                    if (obj.getChild(fld['id']) !== null)
                                        throw Error("Duplicate field id in message "+obj.name+": "+fld['id']);
                                    if (fld["options"]) {
                                        var opts = Object.keys(fld["options"]);
                                        for (var j= 0,l=opts.length; j<l; ++j) { // j:l=Option names
                                            if (typeof opts[j] !== 'string')
                                                throw Error("Illegal field option name in message "+obj.name+"#"+fld["name"]+": "+opts[j]);
                                            if (typeof fld["options"][opts[j]] !== 'string' && typeof fld["options"][opts[j]] !== 'number' && typeof fld["options"][opts[j]] !== 'boolean')
                                                throw Error("Illegal field option value in message "+obj.name+"#"+fld["name"]+"#"+opts[j]+": "+fld["options"][opts[j]]);
                                        }
                                    }
                                    var oneof = null;
                                    if (typeof fld["oneof"] === 'string') {
                                        oneof = oneofs[fld["oneof"]];
                                        if (typeof oneof === 'undefined')
                                            throw Error("Illegal oneof in message "+obj.name+"#"+fld["name"]+": "+fld["oneof"]);
                                    }
                                    fld = new Reflect.Message.Field(this, obj, fld["rule"], fld["keytype"], fld["type"], fld["name"], fld["id"], fld["options"], oneof, def["syntax"]);
                                    if (oneof)
                                        oneof.fields.push(fld);
                                    obj.addChild(fld);
                                }
                            }
                            // Push enums, messages and services to stack
                            var subObj = [];
                            if (typeof def["enums"] !== 'undefined' && def['enums'].length > 0)
                                for (i=0; i<def["enums"].length; i++)
                                    subObj.push(def["enums"][i]);
                            if (def["messages"] && def["messages"].length > 0)
                                for (i=0; i<def["messages"].length; i++)
                                    subObj.push(def["messages"][i]);
                            if (def["services"] && def["services"].length > 0)
                                for (i=0; i<def["services"].length; i++)
                                    subObj.push(def["services"][i]);
                            // Set extension range
                            if (def["extensions"]) {
                                obj.extensions = def["extensions"];
                                if (obj.extensions[0] < ProtoBuf.ID_MIN)
                                    obj.extensions[0] = ProtoBuf.ID_MIN;
                                if (obj.extensions[1] > ProtoBuf.ID_MAX)
                                    obj.extensions[1] = ProtoBuf.ID_MAX;
                            }
                            this.ptr.addChild(obj); // Add to current namespace
                            if (subObj.length > 0) {
                                stack.push(defs); // Push the current level back
                                defs = subObj; // Continue processing sub level
                                subObj = null;
                                this.ptr = obj; // And move the pointer to this namespace
                                obj = null;
                                continue;
                            }
                            subObj = null;
                            obj = null;
                        } else if (Builder.isValidEnum(def)) {
                            obj = new Reflect.Enum(this, this.ptr, def["name"], def["options"], def["syntax"]);
                            for (i=0; i<def["values"].length; i++)
                                obj.addChild(new Reflect.Enum.Value(this, obj, def["values"][i]["name"], def["values"][i]["id"]));
                            this.ptr.addChild(obj);
                            obj = null;
                        } else if (Builder.isValidService(def)) {
                            obj = new Reflect.Service(this, this.ptr, def["name"], def["options"]);
                            for (i in def["rpc"])
                                if (def["rpc"].hasOwnProperty(i))
                                    obj.addChild(new Reflect.Service.RPCMethod(this, obj, i, def["rpc"][i]["request"], def["rpc"][i]["response"], !!def["rpc"][i]["request_stream"], !!def["rpc"][i]["response_stream"], def["rpc"][i]["options"]));
                            this.ptr.addChild(obj);
                            obj = null;
                        } else if (Builder.isValidExtend(def)) {
                            obj = this.ptr.resolve(def["ref"], true);
                            if (obj) {
                                for (i=0; i<def["fields"].length; i++) { // i=Fields
                                    if (obj.getChild(def['fields'][i]['id']) !== null)
                                        throw Error("Duplicate extended field id in message "+obj.name+": "+def['fields'][i]['id']);
                                    if (def['fields'][i]['id'] < obj.extensions[0] || def['fields'][i]['id'] > obj.extensions[1])
                                        throw Error("Illegal extended field id in message "+obj.name+": "+def['fields'][i]['id']+" ("+obj.extensions.join(' to ')+" expected)");
                                    // Convert extension field names to camel case notation if the override is set
                                    var name = def["fields"][i]["name"];
                                    if (this.options['convertFieldsToCamelCase'])
                                        name = ProtoBuf.Util.toCamelCase(def["fields"][i]["name"]);
                                    // see #161: Extensions use their fully qualified name as their runtime key and...
                                    fld = new Reflect.Message.ExtensionField(this, obj, def["fields"][i]["rule"], def["fields"][i]["type"], this.ptr.fqn()+'.'+name, def["fields"][i]["id"], def["fields"][i]["options"]);
                                    // ...are added on top of the current namespace as an extension which is used for
                                    // resolving their type later on (the extension always keeps the original name to
                                    // prevent naming collisions)
                                    var ext = new Reflect.Extension(this, this.ptr, def["fields"][i]["name"], fld);
                                    fld.extension = ext;
                                    this.ptr.addChild(ext);
                                    obj.addChild(fld);
                                }
                            } else if (!/\.?google\.protobuf\./.test(def["ref"])) // Silently skip internal extensions
                                throw Error("Extended message "+def["ref"]+" is not defined");
                        } else
                            throw Error("Not a valid definition: "+JSON.stringify(def));
                        def = null;
                    }
                    // Break goes here
                } else
                    throw Error("Not a valid namespace: "+JSON.stringify(defs));
                defs = null;
                this.ptr = this.ptr.parent; // This namespace is s done
            }
            this.resolved = false; // Require re-resolve
            this.result = null; // Require re-build
            return this;
        };

        /**
         * Imports another definition into this builder.
         * @param {Object.<string,*>} json Parsed import
         * @param {(string|{root: string, file: string})=} filename Imported file name
         * @return {ProtoBuf.Builder} this
         * @throws {Error} If the definition or file cannot be imported
         * @expose
         */
        BuilderPrototype["import"] = function(json, filename) {
            if (typeof filename === 'string') {
                if (ProtoBuf.Util.IS_NODE)
                    filename = require("path")['resolve'](filename);
                if (this.files[filename] === true) {
                    this.reset();
                    return this; // Skip duplicate imports
                }
                this.files[filename] = true;
            } else if (typeof filename === 'object') { // Assume object with root, filename.
                var root = filename.root
                if (ProtoBuf.Util.IS_NODE)
                    root = require("path")['resolve'](root);
                var fname = [root, filename.file].join('/');
                if (this.files[fname] === true) {
                  this.reset();
                  return this; // Skip duplicate imports
                }
                this.files[fname] = true;
            }
            if (!!json['imports'] && json['imports'].length > 0) {
                var importRoot, delim = '/', resetRoot = false;
                if (typeof filename === 'object') { // If an import root is specified, override
                    this.importRoot = filename["root"]; resetRoot = true; // ... and reset afterwards
                    importRoot = this.importRoot;
                    filename = filename["file"];
                    if (importRoot.indexOf("\\") >= 0 || filename.indexOf("\\") >= 0) delim = '\\';
                } else if (typeof filename === 'string') {
                    if (this.importRoot) // If import root is overridden, use it
                        importRoot = this.importRoot;
                    else { // Otherwise compute from filename
                        if (filename.indexOf("/") >= 0) { // Unix
                            importRoot = filename.replace(/\/[^\/]*$/, "");
                            if (/* /file.proto */ importRoot === "")
                                importRoot = "/";
                        } else if (filename.indexOf("\\") >= 0) { // Windows
                            importRoot = filename.replace(/\\[^\\]*$/, "");
                            delim = '\\';
                        } else
                            importRoot = ".";
                    }
                } else
                    importRoot = null;

                for (var i=0; i<json['imports'].length; i++) {
                    if (typeof json['imports'][i] === 'string') { // Import file
                        if (!importRoot)
                            throw Error("Cannot determine import root: File name is unknown");
                        var importFilename = json['imports'][i];
                        if (importFilename === "google/protobuf/descriptor.proto")
                            continue; // Not needed and therefore not used
                        importFilename = importRoot + delim + importFilename;
                        if (this.files[importFilename] === true)
                            continue; // Already imported
                        if (/\.proto$/i.test(importFilename) && !ProtoBuf.DotProto)       // If this is a light build
                            importFilename = importFilename.replace(/\.proto$/, ".json"); // always load the JSON file
                        var contents = ProtoBuf.Util.fetch(importFilename);
                        if (contents === null)
                            throw Error("Failed to import '"+importFilename+"' in '"+filename+"': File not found");
                        if (/\.json$/i.test(importFilename)) // Always possible
                            this["import"](JSON.parse(contents+""), importFilename); // May throw
                        else
                            this["import"]((new ProtoBuf.DotProto.Parser(contents+"")).parse(), importFilename); // May throw
                    } else // Import structure
                        if (!filename)
                            this["import"](json['imports'][i]);
                        else if (/\.(\w+)$/.test(filename)) // With extension: Append _importN to the name portion to make it unique
                            this["import"](json['imports'][i], filename.replace(/^(.+)\.(\w+)$/, function($0, $1, $2) { return $1+"_import"+i+"."+$2; }));
                        else // Without extension: Append _importN to make it unique
                            this["import"](json['imports'][i], filename+"_import"+i);
                }
                if (resetRoot) // Reset import root override when all imports are done
                    this.importRoot = null;
            }
            if (json['package'])
                this.define(json['package']);
            if (json['syntax']) {
                // Propagate syntax to all submessages and subenums
                propagateSyntax(json['syntax'], json);
            }
            var base = this.ptr;
            if (json['options'])
                Object.keys(json['options']).forEach(function(key) {
                    base.options[key] = json['options'][key];
                });
            if (json['messages'])
                this.create(json['messages']),
                this.ptr = base;
            if (json['enums'])
                this.create(json['enums']),
                this.ptr = base;
            if (json['services'])
                this.create(json['services']),
                this.ptr = base;
            if (json['extends'])
                this.create(json['extends']);
            this.reset();
            return this;
        };

        /**
         * Tests if a definition is a valid service definition.
         * @param {Object} def Definition
         * @return {boolean} true if valid, else false
         * @expose
         */
        Builder.isValidService = function(def) {
            // Services require a string name and an rpc object
            return !(typeof def["name"] !== 'string' || !Lang.NAME.test(def["name"]) || typeof def["rpc"] !== 'object');
        };

        /**
         * Tests if a definition is a valid extension.
         * @param {Object} def Definition
         * @returns {boolean} true if valid, else false
         * @expose
        */
        Builder.isValidExtend = function(def) {
            if (typeof def["ref"] !== 'string' || !Lang.TYPEREF.test(def["ref"]))
                return false;
            var i;
            if (typeof def["fields"] !== 'undefined') {
                if (!Array.isArray(def["fields"]))
                    return false;
                var ids = [], id; // IDs must be unique (does not yet test for the extended message's ids)
                for (i=0; i<def["fields"].length; i++) {
                    if (!Builder.isValidMessageField(def["fields"][i]))
                        return false;
                    id = parseInt(def["id"], 10);
                    if (ids.indexOf(id) >= 0)
                        return false;
                    ids.push(id);
                }
                ids = null;
            }
            return true;
        };

        /**
         * Resolves all namespace objects.
         * @throws {Error} If a type cannot be resolved
         * @expose
         */
        BuilderPrototype.resolveAll = function() {
            // Resolve all reflected objects
            var res;
            if (this.ptr == null || typeof this.ptr.type === 'object')
                return; // Done (already resolved)
            if (this.ptr instanceof Reflect.Namespace) {
                // Build all children
                var children = this.ptr.children;
                for (var i= 0, k=children.length; i<k; ++i)
                    this.ptr = children[i],
                    this.resolveAll();
            } else if (this.ptr instanceof Reflect.Message.Field) {
                if (!Lang.TYPE.test(this.ptr.type)) { // Resolve type...
                    if (!Lang.TYPEREF.test(this.ptr.type))
                        throw Error("Illegal type reference in "+this.ptr.toString(true)+": "+this.ptr.type);
                    res = (this.ptr instanceof Reflect.Message.ExtensionField ? this.ptr.extension.parent : this.ptr.parent).resolve(this.ptr.type, true);
                    if (!res)
                        throw Error("Unresolvable type reference in "+this.ptr.toString(true)+": "+this.ptr.type);
                    this.ptr.resolvedType = res;
                    if (res instanceof Reflect.Enum) {
                        this.ptr.type = ProtoBuf.TYPES["enum"];
                        if (this.ptr.syntax === 'proto3' && res.syntax !== 'proto3')
                            throw Error("Proto3 message refers to proto2 enum; " +
                                        "this is not allowed due to differing " +
                                        "enum semantics in proto3");
                    }
                    else if (res instanceof Reflect.Message)
                        this.ptr.type = res.isGroup ? ProtoBuf.TYPES["group"] : ProtoBuf.TYPES["message"];
                    else
                        throw Error("Illegal type reference in "+this.ptr.toString(true)+": "+this.ptr.type);
                } else
                    this.ptr.type = ProtoBuf.TYPES[this.ptr.type];

                // If it's a map field, also resolve the key type. The key type can
                // be only a numeric, string, or bool type (i.e., no enums or
                // messages), so we don't need to resolve against the current
                // namespace.
                if (this.ptr.map) {
                    if (!Lang.TYPE.test(this.ptr.keyType))
                        throw Error("Illegal key type for map field in "+this.ptr.toString(true)+": "+this.ptr.type);
                    this.ptr.keyType = ProtoBuf.TYPES[this.ptr.keyType];
                }
            } else if (this.ptr instanceof ProtoBuf.Reflect.Enum.Value) {
                // No need to build enum values (built in enum)
            } else if (this.ptr instanceof ProtoBuf.Reflect.Service.Method) {
                if (this.ptr instanceof ProtoBuf.Reflect.Service.RPCMethod) {
                    res = this.ptr.parent.resolve(this.ptr.requestName, true);
                    if (!res || !(res instanceof ProtoBuf.Reflect.Message))
                        throw Error("Illegal type reference in "+this.ptr.toString(true)+": "+this.ptr.requestName);
                    this.ptr.resolvedRequestType = res;
                    res = this.ptr.parent.resolve(this.ptr.responseName, true);
                    if (!res || !(res instanceof ProtoBuf.Reflect.Message))
                        throw Error("Illegal type reference in "+this.ptr.toString(true)+": "+this.ptr.responseName);
                    this.ptr.resolvedResponseType = res;
                } else {
                    // Should not happen as nothing else is implemented
                    throw Error("Illegal service type in "+this.ptr.toString(true));
                }
            } else if (!(this.ptr instanceof ProtoBuf.Reflect.Message.OneOf) && !(this.ptr instanceof ProtoBuf.Reflect.Extension))
                throw Error("Illegal object in namespace: "+typeof(this.ptr)+":"+this.ptr);
            this.reset();
        };

        /**
         * Builds the protocol. This will first try to resolve all definitions and, if this has been successful,
         * return the built package.
         * @param {(string|Array.<string>)=} path Specifies what to return. If omitted, the entire namespace will be returned.
         * @return {ProtoBuf.Builder.Message|Object.<string,*>}
         * @throws {Error} If a type could not be resolved
         * @expose
         */
        BuilderPrototype.build = function(path) {
            this.reset();
            if (!this.resolved)
                this.resolveAll(),
                this.resolved = true,
                this.result = null; // Require re-build
            if (this.result === null) // (Re-)Build
                this.result = this.ns.build();
            if (!path)
                return this.result;
            else {
                var part = typeof path === 'string' ? path.split(".") : path,
                    ptr = this.result; // Build namespace pointer (no hasChild etc.)
                for (var i=0; i<part.length; i++)
                    if (ptr[part[i]])
                        ptr = ptr[part[i]];
                    else {
                        ptr = null;
                        break;
                    }
                return ptr;
            }
        };

        /**
         * Similar to {@link ProtoBuf.Builder#build}, but looks up the internal reflection descriptor.
         * @param {string=} path Specifies what to return. If omitted, the entire namespace wiil be returned.
         * @param {boolean=} excludeNonNamespace Excludes non-namespace types like fields, defaults to `false`
         * @return {ProtoBuf.Reflect.T} Reflection descriptor or `null` if not found
         */
        BuilderPrototype.lookup = function(path, excludeNonNamespace) {
            return path ? this.ns.resolve(path, excludeNonNamespace) : this.ns;
        };

        /**
         * Returns a string representation of this object.
         * @return {string} String representation as of "Builder"
         * @expose
         */
        BuilderPrototype.toString = function() {
            return "Builder";
        };

        // Pseudo types documented in Reflect.js.
        // Exist for the sole purpose of being able to "... instanceof ProtoBuf.Builder.Message" etc.
        Builder.Message = function() {};
        Builder.Service = function() {};

        return Builder;

    })(ProtoBuf, ProtoBuf.Lang, ProtoBuf.Reflect);

    /**
     * @alias ProtoBuf.Map
     * @expose
     */
    ProtoBuf.Map = (function(ProtoBuf, Reflect) {
        "use strict";

        /**
         * Constructs a new Map. A Map is a container that is used to implement map
         * fields on message objects. It closely follows the ES6 Map API; however,
         * it is distinct because we do not want to depend on external polyfills or
         * on ES6 itself.
         *
         * @exports ProtoBuf.Map
         * @param {!ProtoBuf.Reflect.Field} field Map field
         * @param {Object.<string,*>=} contents Initial contents
         * @constructor
         */
        var Map = function(field, contents) {
            if (!field.map)
                throw Error("field is not a map");

            /**
             * The field corresponding to this map.
             * @type {!ProtoBuf.Reflect.Field}
             */
            this.field = field;

            /**
             * Element instance corresponding to key type.
             * @type {!ProtoBuf.Reflect.Element}
             */
            this.keyElem = new Reflect.Element(field.keyType, null, true, field.syntax);

            /**
             * Element instance corresponding to value type.
             * @type {!ProtoBuf.Reflect.Element}
             */
            this.valueElem = new Reflect.Element(field.type, field.resolvedType, false, field.syntax);

            /**
             * Internal map: stores mapping of (string form of key) -> (key, value)
             * pair.
             *
             * We provide map semantics for arbitrary key types, but we build on top
             * of an Object, which has only string keys. In order to avoid the need
             * to convert a string key back to its native type in many situations,
             * we store the native key value alongside the value. Thus, we only need
             * a one-way mapping from a key type to its string form that guarantees
             * uniqueness and equality (i.e., str(K1) === str(K2) if and only if K1
             * === K2).
             *
             * @type {!Object<string, {key: *, value: *}>}
             */
            this.map = {};

            /**
             * Returns the number of elements in the map.
             */
            Object.defineProperty(this, "size", {
                get: function() { return Object.keys(this.map).length; }
            });

            // Fill initial contents from a raw object.
            if (contents) {
                var keys = Object.keys(contents);
                for (var i = 0; i < keys.length; i++) {
                    var key = this.keyElem.valueFromString(keys[i]);
                    var val = this.valueElem.verifyValue(contents[keys[i]]);
                    this.map[this.keyElem.valueToString(key)] =
                        { key: key, value: val };
                }
            }
        };

        var MapPrototype = Map.prototype;

        /**
         * Helper: return an iterator over an array.
         * @param {!Array<*>} arr the array
         * @returns {!Object} an iterator
         * @inner
         */
        function arrayIterator(arr) {
            var idx = 0;
            return {
                next: function() {
                    if (idx < arr.length)
                        return { done: false, value: arr[idx++] };
                    return { done: true };
                }
            }
        }

        /**
         * Clears the map.
         */
        MapPrototype.clear = function() {
            this.map = {};
        };

        /**
         * Deletes a particular key from the map.
         * @returns {boolean} Whether any entry with this key was deleted.
         */
        MapPrototype["delete"] = function(key) {
            var keyValue = this.keyElem.valueToString(this.keyElem.verifyValue(key));
            var hadKey = keyValue in this.map;
            delete this.map[keyValue];
            return hadKey;
        };

        /**
         * Returns an iterator over [key, value] pairs in the map.
         * @returns {Object} The iterator
         */
        MapPrototype.entries = function() {
            var entries = [];
            var strKeys = Object.keys(this.map);
            for (var i = 0, entry; i < strKeys.length; i++)
                entries.push([(entry=this.map[strKeys[i]]).key, entry.value]);
            return arrayIterator(entries);
        };

        /**
         * Returns an iterator over keys in the map.
         * @returns {Object} The iterator
         */
        MapPrototype.keys = function() {
            var keys = [];
            var strKeys = Object.keys(this.map);
            for (var i = 0; i < strKeys.length; i++)
                keys.push(this.map[strKeys[i]].key);
            return arrayIterator(keys);
        };

        /**
         * Returns an iterator over values in the map.
         * @returns {!Object} The iterator
         */
        MapPrototype.values = function() {
            var values = [];
            var strKeys = Object.keys(this.map);
            for (var i = 0; i < strKeys.length; i++)
                values.push(this.map[strKeys[i]].value);
            return arrayIterator(values);
        };

        /**
         * Iterates over entries in the map, calling a function on each.
         * @param {function(this:*, *, *, *)} cb The callback to invoke with value, key, and map arguments.
         * @param {Object=} thisArg The `this` value for the callback
         */
        MapPrototype.forEach = function(cb, thisArg) {
            var strKeys = Object.keys(this.map);
            for (var i = 0, entry; i < strKeys.length; i++)
                cb.call(thisArg, (entry=this.map[strKeys[i]]).value, entry.key, this);
        };

        /**
         * Sets a key in the map to the given value.
         * @param {*} key The key
         * @param {*} value The value
         * @returns {!ProtoBuf.Map} The map instance
         */
        MapPrototype.set = function(key, value) {
            var keyValue = this.keyElem.verifyValue(key);
            var valValue = this.valueElem.verifyValue(value);
            this.map[this.keyElem.valueToString(keyValue)] =
                { key: keyValue, value: valValue };
            return this;
        };

        /**
         * Gets the value corresponding to a key in the map.
         * @param {*} key The key
         * @returns {*|undefined} The value, or `undefined` if key not present
         */
        MapPrototype.get = function(key) {
            var keyValue = this.keyElem.valueToString(this.keyElem.verifyValue(key));
            if (!(keyValue in this.map))
                return undefined;
            return this.map[keyValue].value;
        };

        /**
         * Determines whether the given key is present in the map.
         * @param {*} key The key
         * @returns {boolean} `true` if the key is present
         */
        MapPrototype.has = function(key) {
            var keyValue = this.keyElem.valueToString(this.keyElem.verifyValue(key));
            return (keyValue in this.map);
        };

        return Map;
    })(ProtoBuf, ProtoBuf.Reflect);


    /**
     * Loads a .proto string and returns the Builder.
     * @param {string} proto .proto file contents
     * @param {(ProtoBuf.Builder|string|{root: string, file: string})=} builder Builder to append to. Will create a new one if omitted.
     * @param {(string|{root: string, file: string})=} filename The corresponding file name if known. Must be specified for imports.
     * @return {ProtoBuf.Builder} Builder to create new messages
     * @throws {Error} If the definition cannot be parsed or built
     * @expose
     */
    ProtoBuf.loadProto = function(proto, builder, filename) {
        if (typeof builder === 'string' || (builder && typeof builder["file"] === 'string' && typeof builder["root"] === 'string'))
            filename = builder,
            builder = undefined;
        return ProtoBuf.loadJson((new ProtoBuf.DotProto.Parser(proto)).parse(), builder, filename);
    };

    /**
     * Loads a .proto string and returns the Builder. This is an alias of {@link ProtoBuf.loadProto}.
     * @function
     * @param {string} proto .proto file contents
     * @param {(ProtoBuf.Builder|string)=} builder Builder to append to. Will create a new one if omitted.
     * @param {(string|{root: string, file: string})=} filename The corresponding file name if known. Must be specified for imports.
     * @return {ProtoBuf.Builder} Builder to create new messages
     * @throws {Error} If the definition cannot be parsed or built
     * @expose
     */
    ProtoBuf.protoFromString = ProtoBuf.loadProto; // Legacy

    /**
     * Loads a .proto file and returns the Builder.
     * @param {string|{root: string, file: string}} filename Path to proto file or an object specifying 'file' with
     *  an overridden 'root' path for all imported files.
     * @param {function(?Error, !ProtoBuf.Builder=)=} callback Callback that will receive `null` as the first and
     *  the Builder as its second argument on success, otherwise the error as its first argument. If omitted, the
     *  file will be read synchronously and this function will return the Builder.
     * @param {ProtoBuf.Builder=} builder Builder to append to. Will create a new one if omitted.
     * @return {?ProtoBuf.Builder|undefined} The Builder if synchronous (no callback specified, will be NULL if the
     *   request has failed), else undefined
     * @expose
     */
    ProtoBuf.loadProtoFile = function(filename, callback, builder) {
        if (callback && typeof callback === 'object')
            builder = callback,
            callback = null;
        else if (!callback || typeof callback !== 'function')
            callback = null;
        if (callback)
            return ProtoBuf.Util.fetch(typeof filename === 'string' ? filename : filename["root"]+"/"+filename["file"], function(contents) {
                if (contents === null) {
                    callback(Error("Failed to fetch file"));
                    return;
                }
                try {
                    callback(null, ProtoBuf.loadProto(contents, builder, filename));
                } catch (e) {
                    callback(e);
                }
            });
        var contents = ProtoBuf.Util.fetch(typeof filename === 'object' ? filename["root"]+"/"+filename["file"] : filename);
        return contents === null ? null : ProtoBuf.loadProto(contents, builder, filename);
    };

    /**
     * Loads a .proto file and returns the Builder. This is an alias of {@link ProtoBuf.loadProtoFile}.
     * @function
     * @param {string|{root: string, file: string}} filename Path to proto file or an object specifying 'file' with
     *  an overridden 'root' path for all imported files.
     * @param {function(?Error, !ProtoBuf.Builder=)=} callback Callback that will receive `null` as the first and
     *  the Builder as its second argument on success, otherwise the error as its first argument. If omitted, the
     *  file will be read synchronously and this function will return the Builder.
     * @param {ProtoBuf.Builder=} builder Builder to append to. Will create a new one if omitted.
     * @return {!ProtoBuf.Builder|undefined} The Builder if synchronous (no callback specified, will be NULL if the
     *   request has failed), else undefined
     * @expose
     */
    ProtoBuf.protoFromFile = ProtoBuf.loadProtoFile; // Legacy


    /**
     * Constructs a new empty Builder.
     * @param {Object.<string,*>=} options Builder options, defaults to global options set on ProtoBuf
     * @return {!ProtoBuf.Builder} Builder
     * @expose
     */
    ProtoBuf.newBuilder = function(options) {
        options = options || {};
        if (typeof options['convertFieldsToCamelCase'] === 'undefined')
            options['convertFieldsToCamelCase'] = ProtoBuf.convertFieldsToCamelCase;
        if (typeof options['populateAccessors'] === 'undefined')
            options['populateAccessors'] = ProtoBuf.populateAccessors;
        return new ProtoBuf.Builder(options);
    };

    /**
     * Loads a .json definition and returns the Builder.
     * @param {!*|string} json JSON definition
     * @param {(ProtoBuf.Builder|string|{root: string, file: string})=} builder Builder to append to. Will create a new one if omitted.
     * @param {(string|{root: string, file: string})=} filename The corresponding file name if known. Must be specified for imports.
     * @return {ProtoBuf.Builder} Builder to create new messages
     * @throws {Error} If the definition cannot be parsed or built
     * @expose
     */
    ProtoBuf.loadJson = function(json, builder, filename) {
        if (typeof builder === 'string' || (builder && typeof builder["file"] === 'string' && typeof builder["root"] === 'string'))
            filename = builder,
            builder = null;
        if (!builder || typeof builder !== 'object')
            builder = ProtoBuf.newBuilder();
        if (typeof json === 'string')
            json = JSON.parse(json);
        builder["import"](json, filename);
        builder.resolveAll();
        return builder;
    };

    /**
     * Loads a .json file and returns the Builder.
     * @param {string|!{root: string, file: string}} filename Path to json file or an object specifying 'file' with
     *  an overridden 'root' path for all imported files.
     * @param {function(?Error, !ProtoBuf.Builder=)=} callback Callback that will receive `null` as the first and
     *  the Builder as its second argument on success, otherwise the error as its first argument. If omitted, the
     *  file will be read synchronously and this function will return the Builder.
     * @param {ProtoBuf.Builder=} builder Builder to append to. Will create a new one if omitted.
     * @return {?ProtoBuf.Builder|undefined} The Builder if synchronous (no callback specified, will be NULL if the
     *   request has failed), else undefined
     * @expose
     */
    ProtoBuf.loadJsonFile = function(filename, callback, builder) {
        if (callback && typeof callback === 'object')
            builder = callback,
            callback = null;
        else if (!callback || typeof callback !== 'function')
            callback = null;
        if (callback)
            return ProtoBuf.Util.fetch(typeof filename === 'string' ? filename : filename["root"]+"/"+filename["file"], function(contents) {
                if (contents === null) {
                    callback(Error("Failed to fetch file"));
                    return;
                }
                try {
                    callback(null, ProtoBuf.loadJson(JSON.parse(contents), builder, filename));
                } catch (e) {
                    callback(e);
                }
            });
        var contents = ProtoBuf.Util.fetch(typeof filename === 'object' ? filename["root"]+"/"+filename["file"] : filename);
        return contents === null ? null : ProtoBuf.loadJson(JSON.parse(contents), builder, filename);
    };

    return ProtoBuf;
});